API Reference

Top-Level

git.__version__

Current GitPython version.

git.refresh(path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None) None

Convenience method for setting the git executable path.

Parameters

path – Optional path to the Git executable. If not absolute, it is resolved immediately, relative to the current directory.

Note

The path parameter is usually omitted and cannot be used to specify a custom command whose location is looked up in a path search on each call. See Git.refresh for details on how to achieve this.

Note

This calls Git.refresh and sets other global configuration according to the effect of doing so. As such, this function should usually be used instead of using Git.refresh or FetchInfo.refresh directly.

Note

This function is called automatically, with no arguments, at import time.

Objects.Base

class git.objects.base.IndexObject(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, mode: Union[None, int] = None, path: Union[None, str, os.PathLike[str]] = None)

Base for all objects that can be part of the index file.

The classes representing git object types that can be part of the index file are Blob. In addition, Submodule, which is not really a git object type but can be part of an index file, is also a subclass.

__annotations__ = {}
__hash__() int
Returns

Hash of our path as index items are uniquely identifiable by path, not by their data!

__init__(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, mode: Union[None, int] = None, path: Union[None, str, os.PathLike[str]] = None) None

Initialize a newly instanced IndexObject.

Parameters
  • repo – The Repo we are located in.

  • binsha – 20 byte sha1.

  • mode – The stat-compatible file mode as int. Use the stat module to evaluate the information.

  • path – The path to the file in the file system, relative to the git repository root, like file.ext or folder/other.ext.

Note

Path may not be set if the index object has been created directly, as it cannot be retrieved without knowing the parent tree.

__module__ = 'git.objects.base'
__slots__ = ('path', 'mode')
property abspath: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]
Returns

Absolute path to this index object in the file system (as opposed to the path field which is a path relative to the git repository).

The returned path will be native to the system and contains \ on Windows.

mode
property name: str
Returns

Name portion of the path, effectively being the basename

path
class git.objects.base.Object(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes)

Base class for classes representing git object types.

The following four leaf classes represent specific kinds of git objects:

See gitglossary(7) on:

Note

See the AnyGitObject union type of the four leaf subclasses that represent actual git object types.

Note

Submodule is defined under the hierarchy rooted at this Object class, even though submodules are not really a type of git object. (This also applies to its RootModule subclass.)

Note

This Object class should not be confused with object (the root of the class hierarchy in Python).

NULL_BIN_SHA = b'\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00'
NULL_HEX_SHA = '0000000000000000000000000000000000000000'
TYPES = (b'blob', b'tree', b'commit', b'tag')
__annotations__ = {'type': typing.Optional[typing.Literal['commit', 'tag', 'blob', 'tree']]}
__eq__(other: Any) bool
Returns

True if the objects have the same SHA1

__hash__() int
Returns

Hash of our id allowing objects to be used in dicts and sets

__init__(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes) None

Initialize an object by identifying it by its binary sha.

All keyword arguments will be set on demand if None.

Parameters
  • repo – Repository this object is located in.

  • binsha – 20 byte SHA1

__module__ = 'git.objects.base'
__ne__(other: Any) bool
Returns

True if the objects do not have the same SHA1

__repr__() str
Returns

String with pythonic representation of our object

__slots__ = ('repo', 'binsha', 'size')
__str__() str
Returns

String of our SHA1 as understood by all git commands

binsha
property data_stream: OStream
Returns

File-object compatible stream to the uncompressed raw data of the object

Note

Returned streams must be read in order.

property hexsha: str
Returns

40 byte hex version of our 20 byte binary sha

classmethod new(repo: Repo, id: Union[str, Reference]) Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob]
Returns

New Object instance of a type appropriate to the object type behind id. The id of the newly created object will be a binsha even though the input id may have been a ~git.refs.reference.Reference or rev-spec.

Parameters

idReference, rev-spec, or hexsha.

Note

This cannot be a __new__ method as it would always call __init__() with the input id which is not necessarily a binsha.

classmethod new_from_sha(repo: Repo, sha1: bytes) Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob]
Returns

New object instance of a type appropriate to represent the given binary sha1

Parameters

sha1 – 20 byte binary sha1.

repo
size
stream_data(ostream: OStream) Object

Write our data directly to the given output stream.

Parameters

ostream – File-object compatible stream object.

Returns

self

type: Optional[Literal['commit', 'tag', 'blob', 'tree']] = None

String identifying (a concrete Object subtype for) a git object type.

The subtypes that this may name correspond to the kinds of git objects that exist, i.e., the objects that may be present in a git repository.

Note

Most subclasses represent specific types of git objects and override this class attribute accordingly. This attribute is None in the Object base class, as well as the IndexObject intermediate subclass, but never None in concrete leaf subclasses representing specific git object types.

Note

See also GitObjectTypeString.

Objects.Blob

class git.objects.blob.Blob(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, mode: Union[None, int] = None, path: Union[None, str, os.PathLike[str]] = None)

A Blob encapsulates a git blob object.

See gitglossary(7) on “blob”: https://git-scm.com/docs/gitglossary#def_blob_object

DEFAULT_MIME_TYPE = 'text/plain'
__annotations__ = {'type': typing.Literal['blob']}
__module__ = 'git.objects.blob'
__slots__ = ()
executable_mode = 33261
file_mode = 33188
property mime_type: str
Returns

String describing the mime type of this file (based on the filename)

Note

Defaults to text/plain in case the actual file type is unknown.

type: Literal['blob'] = 'blob'

String identifying (a concrete Object subtype for) a git object type.

The subtypes that this may name correspond to the kinds of git objects that exist, i.e., the objects that may be present in a git repository.

Note

Most subclasses represent specific types of git objects and override this class attribute accordingly. This attribute is None in the Object base class, as well as the IndexObject intermediate subclass, but never None in concrete leaf subclasses representing specific git object types.

Note

See also GitObjectTypeString.

Objects.Commit

class git.objects.commit.Commit(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, tree: Optional[git.objects.tree.Tree] = None, author: Optional[git.util.Actor] = None, authored_date: Optional[int] = None, author_tz_offset: Union[None, float] = None, committer: Optional[git.util.Actor] = None, committed_date: Optional[int] = None, committer_tz_offset: Union[None, float] = None, message: Optional[Union[str, bytes]] = None, parents: Optional[Sequence[Commit]] = None, encoding: Optional[str] = None, gpgsig: Optional[str] = None)

Wraps a git commit object.

See gitglossary(7) on “commit object”: https://git-scm.com/docs/gitglossary#def_commit_object

Note

This class will act lazily on some of its attributes and will query the value on demand only if it involves calling the git binary.

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str', 'parents': typing.Sequence[ForwardRef('Commit')], 'repo': "'Repo'", 'type': typing.Literal['commit']}
__init__(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, tree: Optional[git.objects.tree.Tree] = None, author: Optional[git.util.Actor] = None, authored_date: Optional[int] = None, author_tz_offset: Union[None, float] = None, committer: Optional[git.util.Actor] = None, committed_date: Optional[int] = None, committer_tz_offset: Union[None, float] = None, message: Optional[Union[str, bytes]] = None, parents: Optional[Sequence[Commit]] = None, encoding: Optional[str] = None, gpgsig: Optional[str] = None) None

Instantiate a new Commit. All keyword arguments taking None as default will be implicitly set on first query.

Parameters
  • binsha – 20 byte sha1.

  • tree – A Tree object.

  • author – The author Actor object.

  • authored_date – int_seconds_since_epoch The authored DateTime - use time.gmtime() to convert it into a different format.

  • author_tz_offset – int_seconds_west_of_utc The timezone that the authored_date is in.

  • committer – The committer string, as an Actor object.

  • committed_date – int_seconds_since_epoch The committed DateTime - use time.gmtime() to convert it into a different format.

  • committer_tz_offset – int_seconds_west_of_utc The timezone that the committed_date is in.

  • message – string The commit message.

  • encoding – string Encoding of the message, defaults to UTF-8.

  • parents – List or tuple of Commit objects which are our parent(s) in the commit dependency graph.

Returns

Commit

Note

Timezone information is in the same format and in the same sign as what time.altzone() returns. The sign is inverted compared to git’s UTC timezone.

__module__ = 'git.objects.commit'
__parameters__ = ()
__slots__ = ('tree', 'author', 'authored_date', 'author_tz_offset', 'committer', 'committed_date', 'committer_tz_offset', 'message', 'parents', 'encoding', 'gpgsig')
classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

author
author_tz_offset
authored_date
property authored_datetime: datetime.datetime
property co_authors: List[git.util.Actor]

Search the commit message for any co-authors of this commit.

Details on co-authors: https://github.blog/2018-01-29-commit-together-with-co-authors/

Returns

List of co-authors for this commit (as Actor objects).

committed_date
property committed_datetime: datetime.datetime
committer
committer_tz_offset
conf_encoding = 'i18n.commitencoding'
count(paths: Union[str, os.PathLike[str], Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]] = '', **kwargs: Any) int

Count the number of commits reachable from this commit.

Parameters
  • paths – An optional path or a list of paths restricting the return value to commits actually containing the paths.

  • kwargs – Additional options to be passed to git-rev-list(1). They must not alter the output style of the command, or parsing will yield incorrect results.

Returns

An int defining the number of reachable commits

classmethod create_from_tree(repo: Repo, tree: Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, str], message: str, parent_commits: Union[None, List[Commit]] = None, head: bool = False, author: Union[None, git.util.Actor] = None, committer: Union[None, git.util.Actor] = None, author_date: Union[None, str, datetime.datetime] = None, commit_date: Union[None, str, datetime.datetime] = None) Commit

Commit the given tree, creating a Commit object.

Parameters
  • repoRepo object the commit should be part of.

  • treeTree object or hex or bin sha. The tree of the new commit.

  • message – Commit message. It may be an empty string if no message is provided. It will be converted to a string, in any case.

  • parent_commits – Optional Commit objects to use as parents for the new commit. If empty list, the commit will have no parents at all and become a root commit. If None, the current head commit will be the parent of the new commit object.

  • head – If True, the HEAD will be advanced to the new commit automatically. Otherwise the HEAD will remain pointing on the previous commit. This could lead to undesired results when diffing files.

  • author – The name of the author, optional. If unset, the repository configuration is used to obtain this value.

  • committer – The name of the committer, optional. If unset, the repository configuration is used to obtain this value.

  • author_date – The timestamp for the author field.

  • commit_date – The timestamp for the committer field.

Returns

Commit object representing the new commit.

Note

Additional information about the committer and author are taken from the environment or from the git configuration. See git-commit-tree(1) for more information.

default_encoding = 'UTF-8'
encoding
env_author_date = 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'
env_committer_date = 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'
gpgsig
classmethod iter_items(repo: Repo, rev: Union[str, Commit, SymbolicReference], paths: Union[str, os.PathLike[str], Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]] = '', **kwargs: Any) Iterator[Commit]

Find all commits matching the given criteria.

Parameters
  • repo – The Repo.

  • rev – Revision specifier. See git-rev-parse(1) for viable options.

  • paths – An optional path or list of paths. If set only Commits that include the path or paths will be considered.

  • kwargs

    Optional keyword arguments to git-rev-list(1) where:

    • max_count is the maximum number of commits to fetch.

    • skip is the number of commits to skip.

    • since selects all commits since some date, e.g. "1970-01-01".

Returns

Iterator yielding Commit items.

iter_parents(paths: Union[str, os.PathLike[str], Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]] = '', **kwargs: Any) Iterator[git.objects.commit.Commit]

Iterate _all_ parents of this commit.

Parameters
  • paths – Optional path or list of paths limiting the Commits to those that contain at least one of the paths.

  • kwargs – All arguments allowed by git-rev-list(1).

Returns

Iterator yielding Commit objects which are parents of self

message
property name_rev: str
Returns

String describing the commits hex sha based on the closest ~git.refs.reference.Reference.

Note

Mostly useful for UI purposes.

parents: Sequence[Commit]
replace(**kwargs: Any) git.objects.commit.Commit

Create new commit object from an existing commit object.

Any values provided as keyword arguments will replace the corresponding attribute in the new object.

property stats: git.util.Stats

Create a git stat from changes between this commit and its first parent or from all changes done if this is the very first commit.

Returns

Stats

property summary: Union[str, bytes]
Returns

First line of the commit message

property trailers: Dict[str, str]

Deprecated. Get the trailers of the message as a dictionary.

Note

This property is deprecated, please use either trailers_list or trailers_dict.

Returns

Dictionary containing whitespace stripped trailer information. Only contains the latest instance of each trailer key.

property trailers_dict: Dict[str, List[str]]

Get the trailers of the message as a dictionary.

Git messages can contain trailer information that are similar to RFC 822 e-mail headers. See git-interpret-trailers(1).

This function calls git interpret-trailers --parse onto the message to extract the trailer information. The key value pairs are stripped of leading and trailing whitespaces before they get saved into a dictionary.

Valid message with trailer:

Subject line

some body information

another information

key1: value1.1
key1: value1.2
key2 :    value 2 with inner spaces

Returned dictionary will look like this:

{
    "key1": ["value1.1", "value1.2"],
    "key2": ["value 2 with inner spaces"],
}
Returns

Dictionary containing whitespace stripped trailer information, mapping trailer keys to a list of their corresponding values.

property trailers_list: List[Tuple[str, str]]

Get the trailers of the message as a list.

Git messages can contain trailer information that are similar to RFC 822 e-mail headers. See git-interpret-trailers(1).

This function calls git interpret-trailers --parse onto the message to extract the trailer information, returns the raw trailer data as a list.

Valid message with trailer:

Subject line

some body information

another information

key1: value1.1
key1: value1.2
key2 :    value 2 with inner spaces

Returned list will look like this:

[
    ("key1", "value1.1"),
    ("key1", "value1.2"),
    ("key2", "value 2 with inner spaces"),
]
Returns

List containing key-value tuples of whitespace stripped trailer information.

tree
type: Literal['commit'] = 'commit'

String identifying (a concrete Object subtype for) a git object type.

The subtypes that this may name correspond to the kinds of git objects that exist, i.e., the objects that may be present in a git repository.

Note

Most subclasses represent specific types of git objects and override this class attribute accordingly. This attribute is None in the Object base class, as well as the IndexObject intermediate subclass, but never None in concrete leaf subclasses representing specific git object types.

Note

See also GitObjectTypeString.

Objects.Tag

Provides an Object-based type for annotated tags.

This defines the TagObject class, which represents annotated tags. For lightweight tags, see the git.refs.tag module.

class git.objects.tag.TagObject(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, object: Union[None, git.objects.base.Object] = None, tag: Union[None, str] = None, tagger: Union[None, Actor] = None, tagged_date: Optional[int] = None, tagger_tz_offset: Optional[int] = None, message: Optional[str] = None)

Annotated (i.e. non-lightweight) tag carrying additional information about an object we are pointing to.

See gitglossary(7) on “tag object”: https://git-scm.com/docs/gitglossary#def_tag_object

__annotations__ = {'type': typing.Literal['tag']}
__init__(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, object: Union[None, git.objects.base.Object] = None, tag: Union[None, str] = None, tagger: Union[None, Actor] = None, tagged_date: Optional[int] = None, tagger_tz_offset: Optional[int] = None, message: Optional[str] = None) None

Initialize a tag object with additional data.

Parameters
  • repo – Repository this object is located in.

  • binsha – 20 byte SHA1.

  • objectObject instance of object we are pointing to.

  • tag – Name of this tag.

  • taggerActor identifying the tagger.

  • tagged_date – int_seconds_since_epoch The DateTime of the tag creation. Use time.gmtime() to convert it into a different format.

  • tagger_tz_offset – int_seconds_west_of_utc The timezone that the tagged_date is in, in a format similar to time.altzone.

__module__ = 'git.objects.tag'
__slots__ = ('object', 'tag', 'tagger', 'tagged_date', 'tagger_tz_offset', 'message')
message
object: Union['Commit', 'Blob', 'Tree', 'TagObject']
tag
tagged_date
tagger
tagger_tz_offset
type: Literal['tag'] = 'tag'

String identifying (a concrete Object subtype for) a git object type.

The subtypes that this may name correspond to the kinds of git objects that exist, i.e., the objects that may be present in a git repository.

Note

Most subclasses represent specific types of git objects and override this class attribute accordingly. This attribute is None in the Object base class, as well as the IndexObject intermediate subclass, but never None in concrete leaf subclasses representing specific git object types.

Note

See also GitObjectTypeString.

Objects.Tree

class git.objects.tree.Tree(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, mode: int = 16384, path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None)

Tree objects represent an ordered list of Blobs and other Trees.

See gitglossary(7) on “tree object”: https://git-scm.com/docs/gitglossary#def_tree_object

Subscripting is supported, as with a list or dict:

  • Access a specific blob using the tree["filename"] notation.

  • You may likewise access by index, like blob = tree[0].

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_map_id_to_type': typing.Dict[int, typing.Type[typing.Union[ForwardRef('Tree'), ForwardRef('Blob'), ForwardRef('Submodule')]]], 'repo': "'Repo'", 'type': typing.Literal['tree']}
__contains__(item: Union[Tree, Blob, Submodule, str, os.PathLike[str]]) bool
__getitem__(item: Union[str, int, slice]) Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]
__getslice__(i: int, j: int) List[Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]]
__init__(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, mode: int = 16384, path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None)

Initialize a newly instanced IndexObject.

Parameters
  • repo – The Repo we are located in.

  • binsha – 20 byte sha1.

  • mode – The stat-compatible file mode as int. Use the stat module to evaluate the information.

  • path – The path to the file in the file system, relative to the git repository root, like file.ext or folder/other.ext.

Note

Path may not be set if the index object has been created directly, as it cannot be retrieved without knowing the parent tree.

__iter__() Iterator[Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]]
__len__() int
__module__ = 'git.objects.tree'
__reversed__() Iterator[Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]]
__slots__ = ('_cache',)
__truediv__(file: str) Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]

The / operator is another syntax for joining.

See join() for details.

blob_id = 8
property blobs: List[git.objects.blob.Blob]
Returns

list(Blob, …) List of blobs directly below this tree

property cache: git.objects.tree.TreeModifier
Returns

An object allowing modification of the internal cache. This can be used to change the tree’s contents. When done, make sure you call set_done() on the tree modifier, or serialization behaviour will be incorrect.

Note

See TreeModifier for more information on how to alter the cache.

commit_id = 14
join(file: str) Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]

Find the named object in this tree’s contents.

Returns

Blob, Tree, or Submodule

Raises

KeyError – If the given file or tree does not exist in this tree.

list_traverse(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any) git.util.IterableList[Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]]
Returns

IterableList with the results of the traversal as produced by traverse()

Tree -> IterableList[Union[Submodule, Tree, Blob]]

traverse(predicate: Callable[[Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule, Tuple[Optional[git.objects.tree.Tree], Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule], Tuple[git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]]], int], bool] = <function Tree.<lambda>>, prune: Callable[[Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule, Tuple[Optional[git.objects.tree.Tree], Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule], Tuple[git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]]], int], bool] = <function Tree.<lambda>>, depth: int = -1, branch_first: bool = True, visit_once: bool = False, ignore_self: int = 1, as_edge: bool = False) Union[Iterator[Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]], Iterator[Tuple[Optional[git.objects.tree.Tree], Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.blob.Blob, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule], Tuple[git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]]]]

For documentation, see Traversable._traverse() <git.objects.util.Traversable._traverse>.

Trees are set to visit_once = False to gain more performance in the traversal.

tree_id = 4
property trees: List[git.objects.tree.Tree]
Returns

list(Tree, …) List of trees directly below this tree

type: Literal['tree'] = 'tree'

String identifying (a concrete Object subtype for) a git object type.

The subtypes that this may name correspond to the kinds of git objects that exist, i.e., the objects that may be present in a git repository.

Note

Most subclasses represent specific types of git objects and override this class attribute accordingly. This attribute is None in the Object base class, as well as the IndexObject intermediate subclass, but never None in concrete leaf subclasses representing specific git object types.

Note

See also GitObjectTypeString.

class git.objects.tree.TreeModifier(cache: List[Tuple[bytes, int, str]])

A utility class providing methods to alter the underlying cache in a list-like fashion.

Once all adjustments are complete, the _cache, which really is a reference to the cache of a tree, will be sorted. This ensures it will be in a serializable state.

__delitem__(name: str) None

Delete an item with the given name if it exists.

__init__(cache: List[Tuple[bytes, int, str]]) None
__module__ = 'git.objects.tree'
__slots__ = ('_cache',)
add(sha: bytes, mode: int, name: str, force: bool = False) git.objects.tree.TreeModifier

Add the given item to the tree.

If an item with the given name already exists, nothing will be done, but a ValueError will be raised if the sha and mode of the existing item do not match the one you add, unless force is True.

Parameters
  • sha – The 20 or 40 byte sha of the item to add.

  • modeint representing the stat-compatible mode of the item.

  • force – If True, an item with your name and information will overwrite any existing item with the same name, no matter which information it has.

Returns

self

add_unchecked(binsha: bytes, mode: int, name: str) None

Add the given item to the tree. Its correctness is assumed, so it is the caller’s responsibility to ensure that the input is correct.

For more information on the parameters, see add().

Parameters

binsha – 20 byte binary sha.

set_done() git.objects.tree.TreeModifier

Call this method once you are done modifying the tree information.

This may be called several times, but be aware that each call will cause a sort operation.

Returns

self

Objects.Functions

Functions that are supposed to be as fast as possible.

git.objects.fun.traverse_tree_recursive(odb: GitCmdObjectDB, tree_sha: bytes, path_prefix: str) List[Tuple[bytes, int, str]]
Returns

List of entries of the tree pointed to by the binary tree_sha.

An entry has the following format:

  • [0] 20 byte sha

  • [1] mode as int

  • [2] path relative to the repository

Parameters

path_prefix – Prefix to prepend to the front of all returned paths.

git.objects.fun.traverse_trees_recursive(odb: GitCmdObjectDB, tree_shas: Sequence[Optional[bytes]], path_prefix: str) List[Tuple[Optional[Tuple[bytes, int, str]], ...]]
Returns

List of list with entries according to the given binary tree-shas.

The result is encoded in a list of n tuple|None per blob/commit, (n == len(tree_shas)), where:

  • [0] == 20 byte sha

  • [1] == mode as int

  • [2] == path relative to working tree root

The entry tuple is None if the respective blob/commit did not exist in the given tree.

Parameters
  • tree_shas – Iterable of shas pointing to trees. All trees must be on the same level. A tree-sha may be None, in which case None.

  • path_prefix – A prefix to be added to the returned paths on this level. Set it "" for the first iteration.

Note

The ordering of the returned items will be partially lost.

git.objects.fun.tree_entries_from_data(data: bytes) List[Tuple[bytes, int, str]]

Read the binary representation of a tree and returns tuples of Tree items.

Parameters

data – Data block with tree data (as bytes).

Returns

list(tuple(binsha, mode, tree_relative_path), …)

git.objects.fun.tree_to_stream(entries: Sequence[Tuple[bytes, int, str]], write: Callable[[ReadableBuffer], Optional[int]]) None

Write the given list of entries into a stream using its write method.

Parameters
  • entriesSorted list of tuples with (binsha, mode, name).

  • write – A write method which takes a data string.

Objects.Submodule.base

class git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, mode: Optional[int] = None, path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None, name: Optional[str] = None, parent_commit: Optional[Commit] = None, url: Optional[str] = None, branch_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None)

Implements access to a git submodule. They are special in that their sha represents a commit in the submodule’s repository which is to be checked out at the path of this instance.

The submodule type does not have a string type associated with it, as it exists solely as a marker in the tree and index.

All methods work in bare and non-bare repositories.

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str', 'type': typing.Literal['submodule']}
__eq__(other: Any) bool

Compare with another submodule.

__hash__() int

Hash this instance using its logical id, not the sha.

__init__(repo: Repo, binsha: bytes, mode: Optional[int] = None, path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None, name: Optional[str] = None, parent_commit: Optional[Commit] = None, url: Optional[str] = None, branch_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None) None

Initialize this instance with its attributes.

We only document the parameters that differ from IndexObject.

Parameters
  • repo – Our parent repository.

  • binsha – Binary sha referring to a commit in the remote repository. See the url parameter.

  • parent_commit – The Commit whose tree is supposed to contain the .gitmodules blob, or None to always point to the most recent commit. See set_parent_commit() for details.

  • url – The URL to the remote repository which is the submodule.

  • branch_path – Full repository-relative path to ref to checkout when cloning the remote repository.

__module__ = 'git.objects.submodule.base'
__ne__(other: object) bool

Compare with another submodule for inequality.

__parameters__ = ()
__repr__() str
Returns

String with pythonic representation of our object

__slots__ = ('_parent_commit', '_url', '_branch_path', '_name', '__weakref__')
__str__() str
Returns

String of our SHA1 as understood by all git commands

classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

__weakref__
classmethod add(repo: Repo, name: str, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], url: Optional[str] = None, branch: Optional[str] = None, no_checkout: bool = False, depth: Optional[int] = None, env: Optional[Mapping[str, str]] = None, clone_multi_options: Optional[Sequence[Any]] = None, allow_unsafe_options: bool = False, allow_unsafe_protocols: bool = False) Submodule

Add a new submodule to the given repository. This will alter the index as well as the .gitmodules file, but will not create a new commit. If the submodule already exists, no matter if the configuration differs from the one provided, the existing submodule will be returned.

Parameters
  • repo – Repository instance which should receive the submodule.

  • name – The name/identifier for the submodule.

  • path – Repository-relative or absolute path at which the submodule should be located. It will be created as required during the repository initialization.

  • urlgit clone ...-compatible URL. See git-clone(1) for more information. If None, the repository is assumed to exist, and the URL of the first remote is taken instead. This is useful if you want to make an existing repository a submodule of another one.

  • branch – Name of branch at which the submodule should (later) be checked out. The given branch must exist in the remote repository, and will be checked out locally as a tracking branch. It will only be written into the configuration if it not None, which is when the checked out branch will be the one the remote HEAD pointed to. The result you get in these situation is somewhat fuzzy, and it is recommended to specify at least master here. Examples are master or feature/new.

  • no_checkout – If True, and if the repository has to be cloned manually, no checkout will be performed.

  • depth – Create a shallow clone with a history truncated to the specified number of commits.

  • env

    Optional dictionary containing the desired environment variables.

    Note: Provided variables will be used to update the execution environment for git. If some variable is not specified in env and is defined in attr:os.environ, the value from attr:os.environ will be used. If you want to unset some variable, consider providing an empty string as its value.

  • clone_multi_options – A list of clone options. Please see Repo.clone for details.

  • allow_unsafe_protocols – Allow unsafe protocols to be used, like ext.

  • allow_unsafe_options – Allow unsafe options to be used, like --upload-pack.

Returns

The newly created Submodule instance.

Note

Works atomically, such that no change will be done if, for example, the repository update fails.

property branch: Head
Returns

The branch instance that we are to checkout

Raises

git.exc.InvalidGitRepositoryError – If our module is not yet checked out.

property branch_name: str
Returns

The name of the branch, which is the shortest possible branch name

property branch_path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]
Returns

Full repository-relative path as string to the branch we would checkout from the remote and track

children() git.util.IterableList[git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]
Returns

IterableList(Submodule, …) An iterable list of Submodule instances which are children of this submodule or 0 if the submodule is not checked out.

config_reader() git.config.SectionConstraint[git.objects.submodule.util.SubmoduleConfigParser]
Returns

ConfigReader instance which allows you to query the configuration values of this submodule, as provided by the .gitmodules file.

Note

The config reader will actually read the data directly from the repository and thus does not need nor care about your working tree.

Note

Should be cached by the caller and only kept as long as needed.

Raises

IOError – If the .gitmodules file/blob could not be read.

config_writer(index: Optional[IndexFile] = None, write: bool = True) git.config.SectionConstraint[SubmoduleConfigParser]
Returns

A config writer instance allowing you to read and write the data belonging to this submodule into the .gitmodules file.

Parameters
  • index – If not None, an IndexFile instance which should be written. Defaults to the index of the Submodule’s parent repository.

  • write – If True, the index will be written each time a configuration value changes.

Note

The parameters allow for a more efficient writing of the index, as you can pass in a modified index on your own, prevent automatic writing, and write yourself once the whole operation is complete.

Raises
  • ValueError – If trying to get a writer on a parent_commit which does not match the current head commit.

  • IOError – If the .gitmodules file/blob could not be read.

exists() bool
Returns

True if the submodule exists, False otherwise. Please note that a submodule may exist (in the .gitmodules file) even though its module doesn’t exist on disk.

classmethod iter_items(repo: Repo, parent_commit: Union[Commit, TagObject, str] = 'HEAD', *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) Iterator[Submodule]
Returns

Iterator yielding Submodule instances available in the given repository

k_default_mode = 57344

Submodule flags. Submodules are directories with link-status.

k_head_default = 'master'
k_head_option = 'branch'
k_modules_file = '.gitmodules'
module() Repo
Returns

Repo instance initialized from the repository at our submodule path

Raises

git.exc.InvalidGitRepositoryError – If a repository was not available. This could also mean that it was not yet initialized.

module_exists() bool
Returns

True if our module exists and is a valid git repository. See the module() method.

move(module_path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], configuration: bool = True, module: bool = True) git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule

Move the submodule to a another module path. This involves physically moving the repository at our current path, changing the configuration, as well as adjusting our index entry accordingly.

Parameters
  • module_path – The path to which to move our module in the parent repository’s working tree, given as repository-relative or absolute path. Intermediate directories will be created accordingly. If the path already exists, it must be empty. Trailing (back)slashes are removed automatically.

  • configuration – If True, the configuration will be adjusted to let the submodule point to the given path.

  • module – If True, the repository managed by this submodule will be moved as well. If False, we don’t move the submodule’s checkout, which may leave the parent repository in an inconsistent state.

Returns

self

Raises

ValueError – If the module path existed and was not empty, or was a file.

Note

Currently the method is not atomic, and it could leave the repository in an inconsistent state if a sub-step fails for some reason.

property name: str
Returns

The name of this submodule. It is used to identify it within the .gitmodules file.

Note

By default, this is the name is the path at which to find the submodule, but in GitPython it should be a unique identifier similar to the identifiers used for remotes, which allows to change the path of the submodule easily.

property parent_commit: Commit
Returns

Commit instance with the tree containing the .gitmodules file

Note

Will always point to the current head’s commit if it was not set explicitly.

remove(module: bool = True, force: bool = False, configuration: bool = True, dry_run: bool = False) git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule

Remove this submodule from the repository. This will remove our entry from the .gitmodules file and the entry in the .git/config file.

Parameters
  • module

    If True, the checked out module we point to will be deleted as well. If that module is currently on a commit outside any branch in the remote, or if it is ahead of its tracking branch, or if there are modified or untracked files in its working tree, then the removal will fail. In case the removal of the repository fails for these reasons, the submodule status will not have been altered.

    If this submodule has child modules of its own, these will be deleted prior to touching the direct submodule.

  • force – Enforces the deletion of the module even though it contains modifications. This basically enforces a brute-force file system based deletion.

  • configuration – If True, the submodule is deleted from the configuration, otherwise it isn’t. Although this should be enabled most of the time, this flag enables you to safely delete the repository of your submodule.

  • dry_run – If True, we will not actually do anything, but throw the errors we would usually throw.

Returns

self

Note

Doesn’t work in bare repositories.

Note

Doesn’t work atomically, as failure to remove any part of the submodule will leave an inconsistent state.

Raises
rename(new_name: str) git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule

Rename this submodule.

Note

This method takes care of renaming the submodule in various places, such as:

  • $parent_git_dir / config

  • $working_tree_dir / .gitmodules

  • (git >= v1.8.0: move submodule repository to new name)

As .gitmodules will be changed, you would need to make a commit afterwards. The changed .gitmodules file will already be added to the index.

Returns

This Submodule instance

set_parent_commit(commit: Optional[Union[Commit, TagObject, str]], check: bool = True) Submodule

Set this instance to use the given commit whose tree is supposed to contain the .gitmodules blob.

Parameters
  • commit – Commit-ish reference pointing at the root tree, or None to always point to the most recent commit.

  • check – If True, relatively expensive checks will be performed to verify validity of the submodule.

Raises
  • ValueError – If the commit’s tree didn’t contain the .gitmodules blob.

  • ValueError – If the parent commit didn’t store this submodule under the current path.

Returns

self

type: Literal['submodule'] = 'submodule'

This is a bogus type string for base class compatibility.

update(recursive: bool = False, init: bool = True, to_latest_revision: bool = False, progress: Optional[git.objects.submodule.base.UpdateProgress] = None, dry_run: bool = False, force: bool = False, keep_going: bool = False, env: Optional[Mapping[str, str]] = None, clone_multi_options: Optional[Sequence[Any]] = None, allow_unsafe_options: bool = False, allow_unsafe_protocols: bool = False) git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule

Update the repository of this submodule to point to the checkout we point at with the binsha of this instance.

Parameters
  • recursive – If True, we will operate recursively and update child modules as well.

  • init – If True, the module repository will be cloned into place if necessary.

  • to_latest_revision – If True, the submodule’s sha will be ignored during checkout. Instead, the remote will be fetched, and the local tracking branch updated. This only works if we have a local tracking branch, which is the case if the remote repository had a master branch, or if the branch option was specified for this submodule and the branch existed remotely.

  • progressUpdateProgress instance, or None if no progress should be shown.

  • dry_run – If True, the operation will only be simulated, but not performed. All performed operations are read-only.

  • force

    If True, we may reset heads even if the repository in question is dirty. Additionally we will be allowed to set a tracking branch which is ahead of its remote branch back into the past or the location of the remote branch. This will essentially ‘forget’ commits.

    If False, local tracking branches that are in the future of their respective remote branches will simply not be moved.

  • keep_going – If True, we will ignore but log all errors, and keep going recursively. Unless dry_run is set as well, keep_going could cause subsequent/inherited errors you wouldn’t see otherwise. In conjunction with dry_run, it can be useful to anticipate all errors when updating submodules.

  • env

    Optional dictionary containing the desired environment variables.

    Note: Provided variables will be used to update the execution environment for git. If some variable is not specified in env and is defined in attr:os.environ, value from attr:os.environ will be used.

    If you want to unset some variable, consider providing the empty string as its value.

  • clone_multi_options – List of git-clone(1) options. Please see Repo.clone for details. They only take effect with the init option.

  • allow_unsafe_protocols – Allow unsafe protocols to be used, like ext.

  • allow_unsafe_options – Allow unsafe options to be used, like --upload-pack.

Note

Does nothing in bare repositories.

Note

This method is definitely not atomic if recursive is True.

Returns

self

property url: str
Returns

The url to the repository our submodule’s repository refers to

class git.objects.submodule.base.UpdateProgress

Class providing detailed progress information to the caller who should derive from it and implement the update(...) message.

CLONE = 512
FETCH = 1024
UPDWKTREE = 2048
__annotations__ = {'_cur_line': 'Optional[str]', '_num_op_codes': <class 'int'>, '_seen_ops': 'List[int]', 'error_lines': 'List[str]', 'other_lines': 'List[str]'}
__module__ = 'git.objects.submodule.base'
__slots__ = ()

Objects.Submodule.root

class git.objects.submodule.root.RootModule(repo: Repo)

A (virtual) root of all submodules in the given repository.

This can be used to more easily traverse all submodules of the superproject (master repository).

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str', 'type': "Literal['submodule']"}
__init__(repo: Repo) None

Initialize this instance with its attributes.

We only document the parameters that differ from IndexObject.

Parameters
  • repo – Our parent repository.

  • binsha – Binary sha referring to a commit in the remote repository. See the url parameter.

  • parent_commit – The Commit whose tree is supposed to contain the .gitmodules blob, or None to always point to the most recent commit. See set_parent_commit() for details.

  • url – The URL to the remote repository which is the submodule.

  • branch_path – Full repository-relative path to ref to checkout when cloning the remote repository.

__module__ = 'git.objects.submodule.root'
__parameters__ = ()
__slots__ = ()
classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

k_root_name = '__ROOT__'
module() Repo
Returns

The actual repository containing the submodules

update(previous_commit: Optional[Union[Commit, TagObject, str]] = None, recursive: bool = True, force_remove: bool = False, init: bool = True, to_latest_revision: bool = False, progress: Union[None, RootUpdateProgress] = None, dry_run: bool = False, force_reset: bool = False, keep_going: bool = False) RootModule

Update the submodules of this repository to the current HEAD commit.

This method behaves smartly by determining changes of the path of a submodule’s repository, next to changes to the to-be-checked-out commit or the branch to be checked out. This works if the submodule’s ID does not change.

Additionally it will detect addition and removal of submodules, which will be handled gracefully.

Parameters
  • previous_commit – If set to a commit-ish, the commit we should use as the previous commit the HEAD pointed to before it was set to the commit it points to now. If None, it defaults to HEAD@{1} otherwise.

  • recursive – If True, the children of submodules will be updated as well using the same technique.

  • force_remove – If submodules have been deleted, they will be forcibly removed. Otherwise the update may fail if a submodule’s repository cannot be deleted as changes have been made to it. (See Submodule.update for more information.)

  • init – If we encounter a new module which would need to be initialized, then do it.

  • to_latest_revision

    If True, instead of checking out the revision pointed to by this submodule’s sha, the checked out tracking branch will be merged with the latest remote branch fetched from the repository’s origin.

    Unless force_reset is specified, a local tracking branch will never be reset into its past, therefore the remote branch must be in the future for this to have an effect.

  • force_reset – If True, submodules may checkout or reset their branch even if the repository has pending changes that would be overwritten, or if the local tracking branch is in the future of the remote tracking branch and would be reset into its past.

  • progressRootUpdateProgress instance, or None if no progress should be sent.

  • dry_run – If True, operations will not actually be performed. Progress messages will change accordingly to indicate the WOULD DO state of the operation.

  • keep_going – If True, we will ignore but log all errors, and keep going recursively. Unless dry_run is set as well, keep_going could cause subsequent/inherited errors you wouldn’t see otherwise. In conjunction with dry_run, this can be useful to anticipate all errors when updating submodules.

Returns

self

class git.objects.submodule.root.RootUpdateProgress

Utility class which adds more opcodes to UpdateProgress.

BRANCHCHANGE = 16384
PATHCHANGE = 8192
REMOVE = 4096
URLCHANGE = 32768
__annotations__ = {'_cur_line': 'Optional[str]', '_num_op_codes': 'int', '_seen_ops': 'List[int]', 'error_lines': 'List[str]', 'other_lines': 'List[str]'}
__module__ = 'git.objects.submodule.root'
__slots__ = ()

Objects.Submodule.util

class git.objects.submodule.util.SubmoduleConfigParser(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)

Catches calls to write(), and updates the .gitmodules blob in the index with the new data, if we have written into a stream.

Otherwise it would add the local file to the index to make it correspond with the working tree. Additionally, the cache must be cleared.

Please note that no mutating method will work in bare mode.

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__init__(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any) None

Initialize a configuration reader to read the given file_or_files and to possibly allow changes to it by setting read_only False.

Parameters
  • file_or_files – A file path or file object, or a sequence of possibly more than one of them.

  • read_only – If True, the ConfigParser may only read the data, but not change it. If False, only a single file path or file object may be given. We will write back the changes when they happen, or when the ConfigParser is released. This will not happen if other configuration files have been included.

  • merge_includes – If True, we will read files mentioned in [include] sections and merge their contents into ours. This makes it impossible to write back an individual configuration file. Thus, if you want to modify a single configuration file, turn this off to leave the original dataset unaltered when reading it.

  • repo – Reference to repository to use if [includeIf] sections are found in configuration files.

__module__ = 'git.objects.submodule.util'
flush_to_index() None

Flush changes in our configuration file to the index.

set_submodule(submodule: Submodule) None

Set this instance’s submodule. It must be called before the first write operation begins.

write() None

Write changes to our file, if there are changes at all.

Raises

IOError – If this is a read-only writer instance or if we could not obtain a file lock.

git.objects.submodule.util.find_first_remote_branch(remotes: Sequence[Remote], branch_name: str) RemoteReference

Find the remote branch matching the name of the given branch or raise InvalidGitRepositoryError.

git.objects.submodule.util.mkhead(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]) Head
Returns

New branch/head instance

git.objects.submodule.util.sm_name(section: str) str
Returns

Name of the submodule as parsed from the section name

git.objects.submodule.util.sm_section(name: str) str
Returns

Section title used in .gitmodules configuration file

Objects.Util

Utility functions for working with git objects.

class git.objects.util.Actor(name: Optional[str], email: Optional[str])

Actors hold information about a person acting on the repository. They can be committers and authors or anything with a name and an email as mentioned in the git log entries.

__eq__(other: Any) bool

Return self==value.

__hash__() int

Return hash(self).

__init__(name: Optional[str], email: Optional[str]) None
__module__ = 'git.util'
__ne__(other: Any) bool

Return self!=value.

__repr__() str

Return repr(self).

__slots__ = ('name', 'email')
__str__() str

Return str(self).

classmethod author(config_reader: Union[None, GitConfigParser, SectionConstraint] = None) Actor

Same as committer(), but defines the main author. It may be specified in the environment, but defaults to the committer.

classmethod committer(config_reader: Union[None, GitConfigParser, SectionConstraint] = None) Actor
Returns

Actor instance corresponding to the configured committer. It behaves similar to the git implementation, such that the environment will override configuration values of config_reader. If no value is set at all, it will be generated.

Parameters

config_reader – ConfigReader to use to retrieve the values from in case they are not set in the environment.

conf_email = 'email'
conf_name = 'name'
email
env_author_email = 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'
env_author_name = 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'
env_committer_email = 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'
env_committer_name = 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'
name
name_email_regex = re.compile('(.*) <(.*?)>')
name_only_regex = re.compile('<(.*)>')
class git.objects.util.ProcessStreamAdapter(process: Popen, stream_name: str)

Class wiring all calls to the contained Process instance.

Use this type to hide the underlying process to provide access only to a specified stream. The process is usually wrapped into an AutoInterrupt class to kill it if the instance goes out of scope.

__getattr__(attr: str) Any
__init__(process: Popen, stream_name: str) None
__module__ = 'git.objects.util'
__slots__ = ('_proc', '_stream')
class git.objects.util.Traversable

Simple interface to perform depth-first or breadth-first traversals in one direction.

Subclasses only need to implement one function.

Instances of the subclass must be hashable.

Defined subclasses:

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({'_get_intermediate_items', 'list_traverse', 'traverse'})
__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.objects.util'
__slots__ = ()
abstract list_traverse(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any) Any

Traverse self and collect all items found.

Calling this directly on the abstract base class, including via a super() proxy, is deprecated. Only overridden implementations should be called.

abstract traverse(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any) Any

Iterator yielding items found when traversing self.

Calling this directly on the abstract base class, including via a super() proxy, is deprecated. Only overridden implementations should be called.

git.objects.util.altz_to_utctz_str(altz: float) str

Convert a timezone offset west of UTC in seconds into a Git timezone offset string.

Parameters

altz – Timezone offset in seconds west of UTC.

git.objects.util.get_object_type_by_name(object_type_name: bytes) Union[Type[Commit], Type[TagObject], Type[Tree], Type[Blob]]

Retrieve the Python class GitPython uses to represent a kind of Git object.

Returns

A type suitable to handle the given as object_type_name. This type can be called create new instances.

Parameters

object_type_name – Member of Object.TYPES.

Raises

ValueError – If object_type_name is unknown.

git.objects.util.parse_actor_and_date(line: str) Tuple[git.util.Actor, int, int]

Parse out the actor (author or committer) info from a line like:

author Tom Preston-Werner <tom@mojombo.com> 1191999972 -0700
Returns

[Actor, int_seconds_since_epoch, int_timezone_offset]

git.objects.util.parse_date(string_date: Union[str, datetime.datetime]) Tuple[int, int]

Parse the given date as one of the following:

  • Aware datetime instance

  • Git internal format: timestamp offset

  • RFC 2822: Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200

  • ISO 8601: 2005-04-07T22:13:13 - The T can be a space as well.

Returns

Tuple(int(timestamp_UTC), int(offset)), both in seconds since epoch

Raises

ValueError – If the format could not be understood.

Note

Date can also be YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

class git.objects.util.tzoffset(secs_west_of_utc: float, name: Union[None, str] = None)
__dict__ = mappingproxy({'__module__': 'git.objects.util', '__init__': <function tzoffset.__init__>, '__reduce__': <function tzoffset.__reduce__>, 'utcoffset': <function tzoffset.utcoffset>, 'tzname': <function tzoffset.tzname>, 'dst': <function tzoffset.dst>, '__dict__': <attribute '__dict__' of 'tzoffset' objects>, '__weakref__': <attribute '__weakref__' of 'tzoffset' objects>, '__doc__': None, '__annotations__': {}})
__init__(secs_west_of_utc: float, name: Union[None, str] = None) None
__module__ = 'git.objects.util'
__reduce__() Tuple[Type[git.objects.util.tzoffset], Tuple[float, str]]

-> (cls, state)

__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

dst(dt: Optional[datetime.datetime]) datetime.timedelta

datetime -> DST offset as timedelta positive east of UTC.

tzname(dt: Optional[datetime.datetime]) str

datetime -> string name of time zone.

utcoffset(dt: Optional[datetime.datetime]) datetime.timedelta

datetime -> timedelta showing offset from UTC, negative values indicating West of UTC

git.objects.util.utctz_to_altz(utctz: str) int

Convert a git timezone offset into a timezone offset west of UTC in seconds (compatible with time.altzone).

Parameters

utctz – git utc timezone string, e.g. +0200

git.objects.util.verify_utctz(offset: str) str
Raises

ValueError – If offset is incorrect.

Returns

offset

Index.Base

Module containing IndexFile, an Index implementation facilitating all kinds of index manipulations such as querying and merging.

exception git.index.base.CheckoutError(message: str, failed_files: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], valid_files: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], failed_reasons: List[str])

Thrown if a file could not be checked out from the index as it contained changes.

The failed_files attribute contains a list of relative paths that failed to be checked out as they contained changes that did not exist in the index.

The failed_reasons attribute contains a string informing about the actual cause of the issue.

The valid_files attribute contains a list of relative paths to files that were checked out successfully and hence match the version stored in the index.

__init__(message: str, failed_files: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], valid_files: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], failed_reasons: List[str]) None
__module__ = 'git.exc'
__str__() str

Return str(self).

class git.index.base.IndexFile(repo: Repo, file_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None)

An Index that can be manipulated using a native implementation in order to save git command function calls wherever possible.

This provides custom merging facilities allowing to merge without actually changing your index or your working tree. This way you can perform your own test merges based on the index only without having to deal with the working copy. This is useful in case of partial working trees.

Entries:

The index contains an entries dict whose keys are tuples of type IndexEntry to facilitate access.

You may read the entries dict or manipulate it using IndexEntry instance, i.e.:

index.entries[index.entry_key(index_entry_instance)] = index_entry_instance

Make sure you use index.write() once you are done manipulating the index directly before operating on it using the git command.

Flags for a submodule.

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_file_path': 'PathLike', 'repo': "'Repo'"}
__init__(repo: Repo, file_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None) None

Initialize this Index instance, optionally from the given file_path.

If no file_path is given, we will be created from the current index file.

If a stream is not given, the stream will be initialized from the current repository’s index on demand.

__module__ = 'git.index.base'
__slots__ = ('repo', 'version', 'entries', '_extension_data', '_file_path')
add(items: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str], git.objects.blob.Blob, git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]], force: bool = True, fprogress: Callable = <function IndexFile.<lambda>>, path_rewriter: Optional[Callable[[...], Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]] = None, write: bool = True, write_extension_data: bool = False) List[git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry]

Add files from the working tree, specific blobs, or BaseIndexEntrys to the index.

Parameters
  • items

    Multiple types of items are supported, types can be mixed within one call. Different types imply a different handling. File paths may generally be relative or absolute.

    • path string

      Strings denote a relative or absolute path into the repository pointing to an existing file, e.g., CHANGES, lib/myfile.ext`, /home/gitrepo/lib/myfile.ext.

      Absolute paths must start with working tree directory of this index’s repository to be considered valid. For example, if it was initialized with a non-normalized path, like /root/repo/../repo, absolute paths to be added must start with /root/repo/../repo.

      Paths provided like this must exist. When added, they will be written into the object database.

      PathStrings may contain globs, such as lib/__init__*. Or they can be directories like lib, which will add all the files within the directory and subdirectories.

      This equals a straight git-add(1).

      They are added at stage 0.

    • :class:~`git.objects.blob.Blob` or Submodule object

      Blobs are added as they are assuming a valid mode is set.

      The file they refer to may or may not exist in the file system, but must be a path relative to our repository.

      If their sha is null (40*0), their path must exist in the file system relative to the git repository as an object will be created from the data at the path.

      The handling now very much equals the way string paths are processed, except that the mode you have set will be kept. This allows you to create symlinks by settings the mode respectively and writing the target of the symlink directly into the file. This equals a default Linux symlink which is not dereferenced automatically, except that it can be created on filesystems not supporting it as well.

      Please note that globs or directories are not allowed in Blob objects.

      They are added at stage 0.

    • BaseIndexEntry or type

      Handling equals the one of :class:~`git.objects.blob.Blob` objects, but the stage may be explicitly set. Please note that Index Entries require binary sha’s.

  • forceCURRENTLY INEFFECTIVE If True, otherwise ignored or excluded files will be added anyway. As opposed to the git-add(1) command, we enable this flag by default as the API user usually wants the item to be added even though they might be excluded.

  • fprogress

    Function with signature f(path, done=False, item=item) called for each path to be added, one time once it is about to be added where done=False and once after it was added where done=True.

    item is set to the actual item we handle, either a path or a BaseIndexEntry.

    Please note that the processed path is not guaranteed to be present in the index already as the index is currently being processed.

  • path_rewriter – Function, with signature (string) func(BaseIndexEntry), returning a path for each passed entry which is the path to be actually recorded for the object created from entry.path. This allows you to write an index which is not identical to the layout of the actual files on your hard-disk. If not None and items contain plain paths, these paths will be converted to Entries beforehand and passed to the path_rewriter. Please note that entry.path is relative to the git repository.

  • write – If True, the index will be written once it was altered. Otherwise the changes only exist in memory and are not available to git commands.

  • write_extension_data

    If True, extension data will be written back to the index. This can lead to issues in case it is containing the ‘TREE’ extension, which will cause the git-commit(1) command to write an old tree, instead of a new one representing the now changed index.

    This doesn’t matter if you use IndexFile.commit(), which ignores the ‘TREE’ extension altogether. You should set it to True if you intend to use IndexFile.commit() exclusively while maintaining support for third-party extensions. Besides that, you can usually safely ignore the built-in extensions when using GitPython on repositories that are not handled manually at all.

    All current built-in extensions are listed here: https://git-scm.com/docs/index-format

Returns

List of BaseIndexEntrys representing the entries just actually added.

Raises

OSError – If a supplied path did not exist. Please note that BaseIndexEntry objects that do not have a null sha will be added even if their paths do not exist.

checkout(paths: Union[None, Iterable[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]] = None, force: bool = False, fprogress: Callable = <function IndexFile.<lambda>>, **kwargs: Any) Union[None, Iterator[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]]

Check out the given paths or all files from the version known to the index into the working tree.

Note

Be sure you have written pending changes using the write() method in case you have altered the entries dictionary directly.

Parameters
  • paths – If None, all paths in the index will be checked out. Otherwise an iterable of relative or absolute paths or a single path pointing to files or directories in the index is expected.

  • force – If True, existing files will be overwritten even if they contain local modifications. If False, these will trigger a CheckoutError.

  • fprogress

    See IndexFile.add() for signature and explanation.

    The provided progress information will contain None as path and item if no explicit paths are given. Otherwise progress information will be send prior and after a file has been checked out.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to be passed to git-checkout-index(1).

Returns

Iterable yielding paths to files which have been checked out and are guaranteed to match the version stored in the index.

Raises
  • git.exc.CheckoutError

    • If at least one file failed to be checked out. This is a summary, hence it will checkout as many files as it can anyway.

    • If one of files or directories do not exist in the index (as opposed to the original git command, which ignores them).

  • git.exc.GitCommandError – If error lines could not be parsed - this truly is an exceptional state.

Note

The checkout is limited to checking out the files in the index. Files which are not in the index anymore and exist in the working tree will not be deleted. This behaviour is fundamentally different to head.checkout, i.e. if you want git-checkout(1)-like behaviour, use head.checkout instead of index.checkout.

commit(message: str, parent_commits: Optional[List[git.objects.commit.Commit]] = None, head: bool = True, author: Union[None, Actor] = None, committer: Union[None, Actor] = None, author_date: Optional[Union[datetime.datetime, str]] = None, commit_date: Optional[Union[datetime.datetime, str]] = None, skip_hooks: bool = False) git.objects.commit.Commit

Commit the current default index file, creating a Commit object.

For more information on the arguments, see Commit.create_from_tree.

Note

If you have manually altered the entries member of this instance, don’t forget to write() your changes to disk beforehand.

Note

Passing skip_hooks=True is the equivalent of using -n or --no-verify on the command line.

Returns

Commit object representing the new commit

diff(other: Optional[Union[Literal[<DiffConstants.INDEX: 2>], git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.commit.Commit, str]] = DiffConstants.INDEX, paths: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str], List[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], Tuple[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], ...]]] = None, create_patch: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) git.diff.DiffIndex

Diff this index against the working copy or a Tree or Commit object.

For documentation of the parameters and return values, see Diffable.diff.

Note

Will only work with indices that represent the default git index as they have not been initialized with a stream.

entries
classmethod entry_key(*entry: Union[git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry, str, os.PathLike[str], int]) Tuple[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], int]
classmethod from_tree(repo: Repo, *treeish: Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.commit.Commit, str, bytes], **kwargs: Any) IndexFile

Merge the given treeish revisions into a new index which is returned. The original index will remain unaltered.

Parameters
  • repo – The repository treeish are located in.

  • treeish

    One, two or three Tree objects, Commits or 40 byte hexshas.

    The result changes according to the amount of trees:

    1. If 1 Tree is given, it will just be read into a new index.

    2. If 2 Trees are given, they will be merged into a new index using a two way merge algorithm. Tree 1 is the ‘current’ tree, tree 2 is the ‘other’ one. It behaves like a fast-forward.

    3. If 3 Trees are given, a 3-way merge will be performed with the first tree being the common ancestor of tree 2 and tree 3. Tree 2 is the ‘current’ tree, tree 3 is the ‘other’ one.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments passed to git-read-tree(1).

Returns

New IndexFile instance. It will point to a temporary index location which does not exist anymore. If you intend to write such a merged Index, supply an alternate file_path to its write() method.

Note

In the three-way merge case, --aggressive will be specified to automatically resolve more cases in a commonly correct manner. Specify trivial=True as a keyword argument to override that.

As the underlying git-read-tree(1) command takes into account the current index, it will be temporarily moved out of the way to prevent any unexpected interference.

iter_blobs(predicate: Callable[[Tuple[int, git.objects.blob.Blob]], bool] = <function IndexFile.<lambda>>) Iterator[Tuple[int, git.objects.blob.Blob]]
Returns

Iterator yielding tuples of Blob objects and stages, tuple(stage, Blob).

Parameters

predicate – Function(t) returning True if tuple(stage, Blob) should be yielded by the iterator. A default filter, the ~git.index.typ.BlobFilter, allows you to yield blobs only if they match a given list of paths.

merge_tree(rhs: Union[git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.commit.Commit, str, bytes], base: Union[None, git.objects.tree.Tree, git.objects.commit.Commit, str, bytes] = None) git.index.base.IndexFile

Merge the given rhs treeish into the current index, possibly taking a common base treeish into account.

As opposed to the from_tree() method, this allows you to use an already existing tree as the left side of the merge.

Parameters
  • rhs – Treeish reference pointing to the ‘other’ side of the merge.

  • base – Optional treeish reference pointing to the common base of rhs and this index which equals lhs.

Returns

self (containing the merge and possibly unmerged entries in case of conflicts)

Raises

git.exc.GitCommandError – If there is a merge conflict. The error will be raised at the first conflicting path. If you want to have proper merge resolution to be done by yourself, you have to commit the changed index (or make a valid tree from it) and retry with a three-way index.from_tree call.

move(items: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str], git.objects.blob.Blob, git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]], skip_errors: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) List[Tuple[str, str]]

Rename/move the items, whereas the last item is considered the destination of the move operation.

If the destination is a file, the first item (of two) must be a file as well.

If the destination is a directory, it may be preceded by one or more directories or files.

The working tree will be affected in non-bare repositories.

Parameters
  • items – Multiple types of items are supported, please see the remove() method for reference.

  • skip_errors – If True, errors such as ones resulting from missing source files will be skipped.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments you would like to pass to git-mv(1), such as dry_run or force.

Returns

List(tuple(source_path_string, destination_path_string), …)

A list of pairs, containing the source file moved as well as its actual destination. Relative to the repository root.

Raises
classmethod new(repo: Repo, *tree_sha: Union[str, git.objects.tree.Tree]) IndexFile

Merge the given treeish revisions into a new index which is returned.

This method behaves like git-read-tree --aggressive when doing the merge.

Parameters
  • repo – The repository treeish are located in.

  • tree_sha – 20 byte or 40 byte tree sha or tree objects.

Returns

New IndexFile instance. Its path will be undefined. If you intend to write such a merged Index, supply an alternate file_path to its write() method.

property path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]
Returns

Path to the index file we are representing

remove(items: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str], git.objects.blob.Blob, git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry, git.objects.submodule.base.Submodule]], working_tree: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) List[str]

Remove the given items from the index and optionally from the working tree as well.

Parameters
  • items

    Multiple types of items are supported which may be be freely mixed.

    • path string

      Remove the given path at all stages. If it is a directory, you must specify the r=True keyword argument to remove all file entries below it. If absolute paths are given, they will be converted to a path relative to the git repository directory containing the working tree

      The path string may include globs, such as *.c.

    • :class:~`git.objects.blob.Blob` object

      Only the path portion is used in this case.

    • BaseIndexEntry or compatible type

      The only relevant information here is the path. The stage is ignored.

  • working_tree – If True, the entry will also be removed from the working tree, physically removing the respective file. This may fail if there are uncommitted changes in it.

  • kwargs – Additional keyword arguments to be passed to git-rm(1), such as r to allow recursive removal.

Returns

List(path_string, …) list of repository relative paths that have been removed effectively.

This is interesting to know in case you have provided a directory or globs. Paths are relative to the repository.

repo: Repo

Repository to operate on. Must be provided by subclass or sibling class.

reset(commit: Union[git.objects.commit.Commit, Reference, str] = 'HEAD', working_tree: bool = False, paths: Union[None, Iterable[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]] = None, head: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) IndexFile

Reset the index to reflect the tree at the given commit. This will not adjust our HEAD reference by default, as opposed to HEAD.reset.

Parameters
  • commit

    Revision, Reference or Commit specifying the commit we should represent.

    If you want to specify a tree only, use IndexFile.from_tree() and overwrite the default index.

  • working_tree – If True, the files in the working tree will reflect the changed index. If False, the working tree will not be touched. Please note that changes to the working copy will be discarded without warning!

  • head – If True, the head will be set to the given commit. This is False by default, but if True, this method behaves like HEAD.reset.

  • paths – If given as an iterable of absolute or repository-relative paths, only these will be reset to their state at the given commit-ish. The paths need to exist at the commit, otherwise an exception will be raised.

  • kwargs – Additional keyword arguments passed to git-reset(1).

Note

IndexFile.reset(), as opposed to HEAD.reset, will not delete any files in order to maintain a consistent working tree. Instead, it will just check out the files according to their state in the index. If you want git-reset(1)-like behaviour, use HEAD.reset instead.

Returns

self

resolve_blobs(iter_blobs: Iterator[git.objects.blob.Blob]) git.index.base.IndexFile

Resolve the blobs given in blob iterator.

This will effectively remove the index entries of the respective path at all non-null stages and add the given blob as new stage null blob.

For each path there may only be one blob, otherwise a ValueError will be raised claiming the path is already at stage 0.

Raises

ValueError – If one of the blobs already existed at stage 0.

Returns

self

Note

You will have to write the index manually once you are done, i.e. index.resolve_blobs(blobs).write().

unmerged_blobs() Dict[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], List[Tuple[int, git.objects.blob.Blob]]]
Returns

Dict(path : list(tuple(stage, Blob, …))), being a dictionary associating a path in the index with a list containing sorted stage/blob pairs.

Note

Blobs that have been removed in one side simply do not exist in the given stage. That is, a file removed on the ‘other’ branch whose entries are at stage 3 will not have a stage 3 entry.

update() git.index.base.IndexFile

Reread the contents of our index file, discarding all cached information we might have.

Note

This is a possibly dangerous operations as it will discard your changes to index.entries.

Returns

self

version
write(file_path: Union[None, str, os.PathLike[str]] = None, ignore_extension_data: bool = False) None

Write the current state to our file path or to the given one.

Parameters
  • file_path – If None, we will write to our stored file path from which we have been initialized. Otherwise we write to the given file path. Please note that this will change the file_path of this index to the one you gave.

  • ignore_extension_data – If True, the TREE type extension data read in the index will not be written to disk. NOTE that no extension data is actually written. Use this if you have altered the index and would like to use git-write-tree(1) afterwards to create a tree representing your written changes. If this data is present in the written index, git-write-tree(1) will instead write the stored/cached tree. Alternatively, use write_tree() to handle this case automatically.

write_tree() git.objects.tree.Tree

Write this index to a corresponding Tree object into the repository’s object database and return it.

Returns

Tree object representing this index.

Note

The tree will be written even if one or more objects the tree refers to does not yet exist in the object database. This could happen if you added entries to the index directly.

Raises
git.index.base.StageType

alias of int

Index.Functions

Standalone functions to accompany the index implementation and make it more versatile.

Flags for a submodule.

git.index.fun.entry_key(*entry: Union[git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry, str, os.PathLike[str], int]) Tuple[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], int]
Returns

Key suitable to be used for the index.entries dictionary.

Parameters

entry – One instance of type BaseIndexEntry or the path and the stage.

git.index.fun.hook_path(name: str, git_dir: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]) str
Returns

path to the given named hook in the given git repository directory

git.index.fun.read_cache(stream: IO[bytes]) Tuple[int, Dict[Tuple[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], int], git.index.typ.IndexEntry], bytes, bytes]

Read a cache file from the given stream.

Returns

tuple(version, entries_dict, extension_data, content_sha)

  • version is the integer version number.

  • entries_dict is a dictionary which maps IndexEntry instances to a path at a stage.

  • extension_data is "" or 4 bytes of type + 4 bytes of size + size bytes.

  • content_sha is a 20 byte sha on all cache file contents.

git.index.fun.run_commit_hook(name: str, index: IndexFile, *args: str) None

Run the commit hook of the given name. Silently ignore hooks that do not exist.

Parameters
  • name – Name of hook, like pre-commit.

  • indexIndexFile instance.

  • args – Arguments passed to hook file.

Raises

git.exc.HookExecutionError

git.index.fun.stat_mode_to_index_mode(mode: int) int

Convert the given mode from a stat call to the corresponding index mode and return it.

git.index.fun.write_cache(entries: Sequence[Union[git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry, git.index.typ.IndexEntry]], stream: IO[bytes], extension_data: Union[None, bytes] = None, ShaStreamCls: Type[git.util.IndexFileSHA1Writer] = <class 'git.util.IndexFileSHA1Writer'>) None

Write the cache represented by entries to a stream.

Parameters
  • entriesSorted list of entries.

  • stream – Stream to wrap into the AdapterStreamCls - it is used for final output.

  • ShaStreamCls – Type to use when writing to the stream. It produces a sha while writing to it, before the data is passed on to the wrapped stream.

  • extension_data – Any kind of data to write as a trailer, it must begin a 4 byte identifier, followed by its size (4 bytes).

git.index.fun.write_tree_from_cache(entries: List[git.index.typ.IndexEntry], odb: GitCmdObjectDB, sl: slice, si: int = 0) Tuple[bytes, List[TreeCacheTup]]

Create a tree from the given sorted list of entries and put the respective trees into the given object database.

Parameters
  • entriesSorted list of IndexEntrys.

  • odb – Object database to store the trees in.

  • si – Start index at which we should start creating subtrees.

  • sl – Slice indicating the range we should process on the entries list.

Returns

tuple(binsha, list(tree_entry, …))

A tuple of a sha and a list of tree entries being a tuple of hexsha, mode, name.

Index.Types

Additional types used by the index.

class git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry(inp_tuple: Union[Tuple[int, bytes, int, Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], Tuple[int, bytes, int, Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], bytes, bytes, int, int, int, int, int]])

Small brother of an index entry which can be created to describe changes done to the index in which case plenty of additional information is not required.

As the first 4 data members match exactly to the IndexEntry type, methods expecting a BaseIndexEntry can also handle full IndexEntrys even if they use numeric indices for performance reasons.

__annotations__ = {}
__dict__ = mappingproxy({'__module__': 'git.index.typ', '__doc__': 'Small brother of an index entry which can be created to describe changes\n    done to the index in which case plenty of additional information is not required.\n\n    As the first 4 data members match exactly to the :class:`IndexEntry` type, methods\n    expecting a :class:`BaseIndexEntry` can also handle full :class:`IndexEntry`\\s even\n    if they use numeric indices for performance reasons.\n    ', '__new__': <staticmethod(<function BaseIndexEntry.__new__>)>, '__str__': <function BaseIndexEntry.__str__>, '__repr__': <function BaseIndexEntry.__repr__>, 'hexsha': <property object>, 'stage': <property object>, 'from_blob': <classmethod(<function BaseIndexEntry.from_blob>)>, 'to_blob': <function BaseIndexEntry.to_blob>, '__dict__': <attribute '__dict__' of 'BaseIndexEntry' objects>, '__annotations__': {'mode': 'int', 'binsha': 'bytes', 'flags': 'int', 'path': 'PathLike', 'ctime_bytes': 'bytes', 'mtime_bytes': 'bytes', 'dev': 'int', 'inode': 'int', 'uid': 'int', 'gid': 'int', 'size': 'int'}})
__module__ = 'git.index.typ'
static __new__(cls, inp_tuple: Union[Tuple[int, bytes, int, Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], Tuple[int, bytes, int, Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], bytes, bytes, int, int, int, int, int]]) BaseIndexEntry

Override __new__ to allow construction from a tuple for backwards compatibility.

__repr__() str

Return a nicely formatted representation string

__str__() str

Return str(self).

classmethod from_blob(blob: git.objects.blob.Blob, stage: int = 0) git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry
Returns

Fully equipped BaseIndexEntry at the given stage

property hexsha: str

hex version of our sha

property stage: int

Stage of the entry, either:

  • 0 = default stage

  • 1 = stage before a merge or common ancestor entry in case of a 3 way merge

  • 2 = stage of entries from the ‘left’ side of the merge

  • 3 = stage of entries from the ‘right’ side of the merge

Note

For more information, see git-read-tree(1).

to_blob(repo: Repo) git.objects.blob.Blob
Returns

Blob using the information of this index entry

class git.index.typ.BlobFilter(paths: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]])

Predicate to be used by IndexFile.iter_blobs allowing to filter only return blobs which match the given list of directories or files.

The given paths are given relative to the repository.

__call__(stage_blob: Tuple[int, git.objects.blob.Blob]) bool

Call self as a function.

__init__(paths: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]) None
Parameters

paths – Tuple or list of paths which are either pointing to directories or to files relative to the current repository.

__module__ = 'git.index.typ'
__slots__ = ('paths',)
paths
class git.index.typ.IndexEntry(inp_tuple: Union[Tuple[int, bytes, int, Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], Tuple[int, bytes, int, Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], bytes, bytes, int, int, int, int, int]])

Allows convenient access to index entry data as defined in BaseIndexEntry without completely unpacking it.

Attributes usually accessed often are cached in the tuple whereas others are unpacked on demand.

See the properties for a mapping between names and tuple indices.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.index.typ'
property ctime: Tuple[int, int]
Returns

Tuple(int_time_seconds_since_epoch, int_nano_seconds) of the file’s creation time

classmethod from_base(base: git.index.typ.BaseIndexEntry) git.index.typ.IndexEntry
Returns

Minimal entry as created from the given BaseIndexEntry instance. Missing values will be set to null-like values.

Parameters

base – Instance of type BaseIndexEntry.

classmethod from_blob(blob: git.objects.blob.Blob, stage: int = 0) git.index.typ.IndexEntry
Returns

Minimal entry resembling the given blob object

property mtime: Tuple[int, int]

See ctime property, but returns modification time.

git.index.typ.StageType

alias of int

Index.Util

Index utilities.

class git.index.util.TemporaryFileSwap(file_path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]])

Utility class moving a file to a temporary location within the same directory and moving it back on to where on object deletion.

__enter__() git.index.util.TemporaryFileSwap
__exit__(exc_type: Optional[Type[BaseException]], exc_val: Optional[BaseException], exc_tb: Optional[types.TracebackType]) Literal[False]
__init__(file_path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]) None
__module__ = 'git.index.util'
__slots__ = ('file_path', 'tmp_file_path')
file_path
tmp_file_path
git.index.util.default_index(func: Callable[[...], git.types._T]) Callable[[...], git.types._T]

Decorator ensuring the wrapped method may only run if we are the default repository index.

This is as we rely on git commands that operate on that index only.

git.index.util.git_working_dir(func: Callable[[...], git.types._T]) Callable[[...], git.types._T]

Decorator which changes the current working dir to the one of the git repository in order to ensure relative paths are handled correctly.

git.index.util.post_clear_cache(func: Callable[[...], git.types._T]) Callable[[...], git.types._T]

Decorator for functions that alter the index using the git command.

When a git command alters the index, this invalidates our possibly existing entries dictionary, which is why it must be deleted to allow it to be lazily reread later.

GitCmd

class git.cmd.Git(working_dir: Union[None, str, os.PathLike[str]] = None)

The Git class manages communication with the Git binary.

It provides a convenient interface to calling the Git binary, such as in:

g = Git( git_dir )
g.init()                   # calls 'git init' program
rval = g.ls_files()        # calls 'git ls-files' program

Debugging:

  • Set the GIT_PYTHON_TRACE environment variable to print each invocation of the command to stdout.

  • Set its value to full to see details about the returned values.

class AutoInterrupt(proc: Union[None, subprocess.Popen], args: Any)

Process wrapper that terminates the wrapped process on finalization.

This kills/interrupts the stored process instance once this instance goes out of scope. It is used to prevent processes piling up in case iterators stop reading.

All attributes are wired through to the contained process object.

The wait method is overridden to perform automatic status code checking and possibly raise.

__annotations__ = {'_status_code_if_terminate': 'int'}
__del__() None
__getattr__(attr: str) Any
__init__(proc: Union[None, subprocess.Popen], args: Any) None
__module__ = 'git.cmd'
__slots__ = ('proc', 'args', 'status')
args
proc
status: Optional[int]
wait(stderr: Union[None, str, bytes] = b'') int

Wait for the process and return its status code.

Parameters

stderr – Previously read value of stderr, in case stderr is already closed.

Warn

May deadlock if output or error pipes are used and not handled separately.

Raises

git.exc.GitCommandError – If the return status is not 0.

class CatFileContentStream(size: int, stream: IO[bytes])

Object representing a sized read-only stream returning the contents of an object.

This behaves like a stream, but counts the data read and simulates an empty stream once our sized content region is empty.

If not all data are read to the end of the object’s lifetime, we read the rest to ensure the underlying stream continues to work.

__del__() None
__init__(size: int, stream: IO[bytes]) None
__iter__() git.cmd.Git.CatFileContentStream
__module__ = 'git.cmd'
__next__() bytes
__slots__ = ('_stream', '_nbr', '_size')
next() bytes
read(size: int = - 1) bytes
readline(size: int = - 1) bytes
readlines(size: int = - 1) List[bytes]
GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE = 'git'

Provide the full path to the git executable. Otherwise it assumes git is in the executable search path.

Note

The git executable is actually found during the refresh step in the top level __init__. It can also be changed by explicitly calling git.refresh().

GIT_PYTHON_TRACE = False

Enables debugging of GitPython’s git commands.

USE_SHELL: bool = False

Deprecated. If set to True, a shell will be used when executing git commands.

Code that uses USE_SHELL = True or that passes shell=True to any GitPython functions should be updated to use the default value of False instead. True is unsafe unless the effect of syntax treated specially by the shell is fully considered and accounted for, which is not possible under most circumstances. As detailed below, it is also no longer needed, even where it had been in the past.

It is in many if not most cases a command injection vulnerability for an application to set USE_SHELL to True. Any attacker who can cause a specially crafted fragment of text to make its way into any part of any argument to any git command (including paths, branch names, etc.) can cause the shell to read and write arbitrary files and execute arbitrary commands. Innocent input may also accidentally contain special shell syntax, leading to inadvertent malfunctions.

In addition, how a value of True interacts with some aspects of GitPython’s operation is not precisely specified and may change without warning, even before GitPython 4.0.0 when USE_SHELL may be removed. This includes:

  • Whether or how GitPython automatically customizes the shell environment.

  • Whether, outside of Windows (where subprocess.Popen supports lists of separate arguments even when shell=True), this can be used with any GitPython functionality other than direct calls to the execute() method.

  • Whether any GitPython feature that runs git commands ever attempts to partially sanitize data a shell may treat specially. Currently this is not done.

Prior to GitPython 2.0.8, this had a narrow purpose in suppressing console windows in graphical Windows applications. In 2.0.8 and higher, it provides no benefit, as GitPython solves that problem more robustly and safely by using the CREATE_NO_WINDOW process creation flag on Windows.

Because Windows path search differs subtly based on whether a shell is used, in rare cases changing this from True to False may keep an unusual git “executable”, such as a batch file, from being found. To fix this, set the command name or full path in the GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE environment variable or pass the full path to git.refresh() (or invoke the script using a .exe shim).

Further reading:

__annotations__ = {'USE_SHELL': 'bool', '_environment': 'Dict[str, str]', '_git_options': 'Union[List[str], Tuple[str, ...]]', '_persistent_git_options': 'List[str]', '_version_info': 'Union[Tuple[int, ...], None]', '_version_info_token': 'object', 'cat_file_all': 'Union[None, TBD]', 'cat_file_header': 'Union[None, TBD]'}
__call__(**kwargs: Any) git.cmd.Git

Specify command line options to the git executable for a subcommand call.

Parameters

kwargs – A dict of keyword arguments. These arguments are passed as in _call_process(), but will be passed to the git command rather than the subcommand.

Examples:

git(work_tree='/tmp').difftool()
__getattr__(name: str) Any

A convenience method as it allows to call the command as if it was an object.

Returns

Callable object that will execute call _call_process() with your arguments.

__getattribute__(name: str) Any

Return getattr(self, name).

__getstate__() Dict[str, Any]

Helper for pickle.

__init__(working_dir: Union[None, str, os.PathLike[str]] = None) None

Initialize this instance with:

Parameters

working_dir – Git directory we should work in. If None, we always work in the current directory as returned by os.getcwd(). This is meant to be the working tree directory if available, or the .git directory in case of bare repositories.

__module__ = 'git.cmd'
__setstate__(d: Dict[str, Any]) None
__slots__ = ('_working_dir', 'cat_file_all', 'cat_file_header', '_version_info', '_version_info_token', '_git_options', '_persistent_git_options', '_environment')
cat_file_all: Union[None, Any]
cat_file_header: Union[None, Any]
classmethod check_unsafe_options(options: List[str], unsafe_options: List[str]) None

Check for unsafe options.

Some options that are passed to git <command> can be used to execute arbitrary commands. These are blocked by default.

classmethod check_unsafe_protocols(url: str) None

Check for unsafe protocols.

Apart from the usual protocols (http, git, ssh), Git allows “remote helpers” that have the form <transport>::<address>. One of these helpers (ext::) can be used to invoke any arbitrary command.

See:

clear_cache() git.cmd.Git

Clear all kinds of internal caches to release resources.

Currently persistent commands will be interrupted.

Returns

self

custom_environment(**kwargs: Any) Iterator[None]

A context manager around the above update_environment() method to restore the environment back to its previous state after operation.

Examples:

with self.custom_environment(GIT_SSH='/bin/ssh_wrapper'):
    repo.remotes.origin.fetch()
Parameters

kwargs – See update_environment().

environment() Dict[str, str]
execute(command: Union[str, Sequence[Any]], *, as_process: Literal[True]) AutoInterrupt
execute(command: Union[str, Sequence[Any]], *, as_process: Literal[False] = 'False', stdout_as_string: Literal[True]) Union[str, Tuple[int, str, str]]
execute(command: Union[str, Sequence[Any]], *, as_process: Literal[False] = 'False', stdout_as_string: Literal[False] = 'False') Union[bytes, Tuple[int, bytes, str]]
execute(command: Union[str, Sequence[Any]], *, with_extended_output: Literal[False], as_process: Literal[False], stdout_as_string: Literal[True]) str
execute(command: Union[str, Sequence[Any]], *, with_extended_output: Literal[False], as_process: Literal[False], stdout_as_string: Literal[False]) bytes

Handle executing the command, and consume and return the returned information (stdout).

Parameters
  • command – The command argument list to execute. It should be a sequence of program arguments, or a string. The program to execute is the first item in the args sequence or string.

  • istream – Standard input filehandle passed to subprocess.Popen.

  • with_extended_output – Whether to return a (status, stdout, stderr) tuple.

  • with_exceptions – Whether to raise an exception when git returns a non-zero status.

  • as_process – Whether to return the created process instance directly from which streams can be read on demand. This will render with_extended_output and with_exceptions ineffective - the caller will have to deal with the details. It is important to note that the process will be placed into an AutoInterrupt wrapper that will interrupt the process once it goes out of scope. If you use the command in iterators, you should pass the whole process instance instead of a single stream.

  • output_stream – If set to a file-like object, data produced by the git command will be copied to the given stream instead of being returned as a string. This feature only has any effect if as_process is False.

  • stdout_as_string – If False, the command’s standard output will be bytes. Otherwise, it will be decoded into a string using the default encoding (usually UTF-8). The latter can fail, if the output contains binary data.

  • kill_after_timeout

    Specifies a timeout in seconds for the git command, after which the process should be killed. This will have no effect if as_process is set to True. It is set to None by default and will let the process run until the timeout is explicitly specified. Uses of this feature should be carefully considered, due to the following limitations:

    1. This feature is not supported at all on Windows.

    2. Effectiveness may vary by operating system. ps --ppid is used to enumerate child processes, which is available on most GNU/Linux systems but not most others.

    3. Deeper descendants do not receive signals, though they may sometimes terminate as a consequence of their parent processes being killed.

    4. kill_after_timeout uses SIGKILL, which can have negative side effects on a repository. For example, stale locks in case of git-gc(1) could render the repository incapable of accepting changes until the lock is manually removed.

  • with_stdout – If True, default True, we open stdout on the created process.

  • universal_newlines – If True, pipes will be opened as text, and lines are split at all known line endings.

  • shell

    Whether to invoke commands through a shell (see Popen(..., shell=True)). If this is not None, it overrides USE_SHELL.

    Passing shell=True to this or any other GitPython function should be avoided, as it is unsafe under most circumstances. This is because it is typically not feasible to fully consider and account for the effect of shell expansions, especially when passing shell=True to other methods that forward it to Git.execute(). Passing shell=True is also no longer needed (nor useful) to work around any known operating system specific issues.

  • env – A dictionary of environment variables to be passed to subprocess.Popen.

  • max_chunk_size – Maximum number of bytes in one chunk of data passed to the output_stream in one invocation of its write() method. If the given number is not positive then the default value is used.

  • strip_newline_in_stdout – Whether to strip the trailing \n of the command stdout.

  • subprocess_kwargs – Keyword arguments to be passed to subprocess.Popen. Please note that some of the valid kwargs are already set by this method; the ones you specify may not be the same ones.

Returns

  • str(output), if extended_output is False (Default)

  • tuple(int(status), str(stdout), str(stderr)), if extended_output is True

If output_stream is True, the stdout value will be your output stream:

  • output_stream, if extended_output is False

  • tuple(int(status), output_stream, str(stderr)), if extended_output is True

Note that git is executed with LC_MESSAGES="C" to ensure consistent output regardless of system language.

Raises

git.exc.GitCommandError

Note

If you add additional keyword arguments to the signature of this method, you must update the execute_kwargs variable housed in this module.

get_object_data(ref: str) Tuple[str, str, int, bytes]

Similar to get_object_header(), but returns object data as well.

Returns

(hexsha, type_string, size_as_int, data_string)

Note

Not threadsafe.

get_object_header(ref: str) Tuple[str, str, int]

Use this method to quickly examine the type and size of the object behind the given ref.

Note

The method will only suffer from the costs of command invocation once and reuses the command in subsequent calls.

Returns

(hexsha, type_string, size_as_int)

git_exec_name = 'git'

Default git command that should work on Linux, Windows, and other systems.

classmethod is_cygwin() bool
classmethod polish_url(url: str, is_cygwin: Literal[False] = None) str
classmethod polish_url(url: str, is_cygwin: Union[None, bool] = None) str

Remove any backslashes from URLs to be written in config files.

Windows might create config files containing paths with backslashes, but git stops liking them as it will escape the backslashes. Hence we undo the escaping just to be sure.

re_unsafe_protocol = re.compile('(.+)::.+')
classmethod refresh(path: Union[None, str, os.PathLike[str]] = None) bool

Update information about the git executable Git objects will use.

Called by the git.refresh() function in the top level __init__.

Parameters

path – Optional path to the git executable. If not absolute, it is resolved immediately, relative to the current directory. (See note below.)

Note

The top-level git.refresh() should be preferred because it calls this method and may also update other state accordingly.

Note

There are three different ways to specify the command that refreshing causes to be used for git:

  1. Pass no path argument and do not set the GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE environment variable. The command name git is used. It is looked up in a path search by the system, in each command run (roughly similar to how git is found when running git commands manually). This is usually the desired behavior.

  2. Pass no path argument but set the GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE environment variable. The command given as the value of that variable is used. This may be a simple command or an arbitrary path. It is looked up in each command run. Setting GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE to git has the same effect as not setting it.

  3. Pass a path argument. This path, if not absolute, is immediately resolved, relative to the current directory. This resolution occurs at the time of the refresh. When git commands are run, they are run using that previously resolved path. If a path argument is passed, the GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE environment variable is not consulted.

Note

Refreshing always sets the Git.GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE class attribute, which can be read on the Git class or any of its instances to check what command is used to run git. This attribute should not be confused with the related GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE environment variable. The class attribute is set no matter how refreshing is performed.

set_persistent_git_options(**kwargs: Any) None

Specify command line options to the git executable for subsequent subcommand calls.

Parameters

kwargs – A dict of keyword arguments. These arguments are passed as in _call_process(), but will be passed to the git command rather than the subcommand.

stream_object_data(ref: str) Tuple[str, str, int, git.cmd.Git.CatFileContentStream]

Similar to get_object_data(), but returns the data as a stream.

Returns

(hexsha, type_string, size_as_int, stream)

Note

This method is not threadsafe. You need one independent Git instance per thread to be safe!

transform_kwarg(name: str, value: Any, split_single_char_options: bool) List[str]
transform_kwargs(split_single_char_options: bool = True, **kwargs: Any) List[str]

Transform Python-style kwargs into git command line options.

update_environment(**kwargs: Any) Dict[str, Optional[str]]

Set environment variables for future git invocations. Return all changed values in a format that can be passed back into this function to revert the changes.

Examples:

old_env = self.update_environment(PWD='/tmp')
self.update_environment(**old_env)
Parameters

kwargs – Environment variables to use for git processes.

Returns

Dict that maps environment variables to their old values

property version_info: Tuple[int, ...]
Returns

Tuple with integers representing the major, minor and additional version numbers as parsed from git-version(1). Up to four fields are used.

This value is generated on demand and is cached.

property working_dir: Union[None, str, os.PathLike[str]]
Returns

Git directory we are working on

git.cmd.GitMeta

Alias of Git’s metaclass, whether it is type or a custom metaclass.

Whether the Git class has the default type as its metaclass or uses a custom metaclass is not documented and may change at any time. This statically checkable metaclass alias is equivalent at runtime to type(Git). This should almost never be used. Code that benefits from it is likely to be remain brittle even if it is used.

In view of the Git class’s intended use and Git objects’ dynamic callable attributes representing git subcommands, it rarely makes sense to inherit from Git at all. Using Git in multiple inheritance can be especially tricky to do correctly. Attempting uses of Git where its metaclass is relevant, such as when a sibling class has an unrelated metaclass and a shared lower bound metaclass might have to be introduced to solve a metaclass conflict, is not recommended.

Note

The correct static type of the Git class itself, and any subclasses, is Type[Git]. (This can be written as type[Git] in Python 3.9 later.)

GitMeta should never be used in any annotation where Type[Git] is intended or otherwise possible to use. This alias is truly only for very rare and inherently precarious situations where it is necessary to deal with the metaclass explicitly.

Config

Parser for reading and writing configuration files.

git.config.GitConfigParser

alias of git.config.GitConfigParser

class git.config.SectionConstraint(config: git.config.T_ConfigParser, section: str)

Constrains a ConfigParser to only option commands which are constrained to always use the section we have been initialized with.

It supports all ConfigParser methods that operate on an option.

Note

If used as a context manager, will release the wrapped ConfigParser.

__annotations__ = {}
__del__() None
__enter__() git.config.SectionConstraint[git.config.T_ConfigParser]
__exit__(exception_type: str, exception_value: str, traceback: str) None
__getattr__(attr: str) Any
__init__(config: git.config.T_ConfigParser, section: str) None
__module__ = 'git.config'
__orig_bases__ = (typing.Generic[~T_ConfigParser],)
__parameters__ = (~T_ConfigParser,)
__slots__ = ('_config', '_section_name')
property config: git.config.T_ConfigParser

return: ConfigParser instance we constrain

release() None

Equivalent to GitConfigParser.release(), which is called on our underlying parser instance.

Diff

class git.diff.Diff(repo: Repo, a_rawpath: Optional[bytes], b_rawpath: Optional[bytes], a_blob_id: Optional[Union[str, bytes]], b_blob_id: Optional[Union[str, bytes]], a_mode: Optional[Union[bytes, str]], b_mode: Optional[Union[bytes, str]], new_file: bool, deleted_file: bool, copied_file: bool, raw_rename_from: Optional[bytes], raw_rename_to: Optional[bytes], diff: Optional[Union[str, bytes]], change_type: Optional[Literal['A', 'D', 'C', 'M', 'R', 'T', 'U']], score: Optional[int])

A Diff contains diff information between two Trees.

It contains two sides a and b of the diff. Members are prefixed with “a” and “b” respectively to indicate that.

Diffs keep information about the changed blob objects, the file mode, renames, deletions and new files.

There are a few cases where None has to be expected as member variable value:

New File:

a_mode is None
a_blob is None
a_path is None

Deleted File:

b_mode is None
b_blob is None
b_path is None

Working Tree Blobs:

When comparing to working trees, the working tree blob will have a null hexsha as a corresponding object does not yet exist. The mode will be null as well. The path will be available, though.

If it is listed in a diff, the working tree version of the file must differ from the version in the index or tree, and hence has been modified.

NULL_BIN_SHA = b'\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00'
NULL_HEX_SHA = '0000000000000000000000000000000000000000'
__eq__(other: object) bool

Return self==value.

__hash__() int

Return hash(self).

__init__(repo: Repo, a_rawpath: Optional[bytes], b_rawpath: Optional[bytes], a_blob_id: Optional[Union[str, bytes]], b_blob_id: Optional[Union[str, bytes]], a_mode: Optional[Union[bytes, str]], b_mode: Optional[Union[bytes, str]], new_file: bool, deleted_file: bool, copied_file: bool, raw_rename_from: Optional[bytes], raw_rename_to: Optional[bytes], diff: Optional[Union[str, bytes]], change_type: Optional[Literal['A', 'D', 'C', 'M', 'R', 'T', 'U']], score: Optional[int]) None
__module__ = 'git.diff'
__ne__(other: object) bool

Return self!=value.

__slots__ = ('a_blob', 'b_blob', 'a_mode', 'b_mode', 'a_rawpath', 'b_rawpath', 'new_file', 'deleted_file', 'copied_file', 'raw_rename_from', 'raw_rename_to', 'diff', 'change_type', 'score')
__str__() str

Return str(self).

a_blob: Union['IndexObject', None]
a_mode
property a_path: Optional[str]
a_rawpath
b_blob: Union['IndexObject', None]
b_mode
property b_path: Optional[str]
b_rawpath
change_type: Union[Lit_change_type, None]
copied_file: bool
deleted_file: bool
diff
new_file: bool
raw_rename_from
raw_rename_to
re_header = re.compile(b'\n                                ^diff[ ]--git\n                                    [ ](?P<a_path_fallback>"?[ab]/.+?"?)[ ](?P<b_path_fallback>"?[ab]/.+?"?)\\n\n                                (?:^, re.MULTILINE|re.VERBOSE)
property rename_from: Optional[str]
property rename_to: Optional[str]
property renamed: bool

Deprecated, use renamed_file instead.

Returns

True if the blob of our diff has been renamed

Note

This property is deprecated. Please use the renamed_file property instead.

property renamed_file: bool
Returns

True if the blob of our diff has been renamed

score
class git.diff.DiffConstants(value, names=None, *values, module=None, qualname=None, type=None, start=1, boundary=None)

Special objects for Diffable.diff().

See the Diffable.diff() method’s other parameter, which accepts various values including these.

Note

These constants are also available as attributes of the git.diff module, the Diffable class and its subclasses and instances, and the top-level git module.

INDEX = 2

Stand-in indicating you want to diff against the index.

Also accessible as git.INDEX, git.diff.INDEX, and Diffable.INDEX, as well as Diffable.Index. The latter has been kept for backward compatibility and made an alias of this, so it may still be used.

NULL_TREE = 1

Stand-in indicating you want to compare against the empty tree in diffs.

Also accessible as git.NULL_TREE, git.diff.NULL_TREE, and Diffable.NULL_TREE.

__module__ = 'git.diff'
class git.diff.DiffIndex(iterable=(), /)

An index for diffs, allowing a list of Diffs to be queried by the diff properties.

The class improves the diff handling convenience.

__annotations__ = {}
__dict__ = mappingproxy({'__module__': 'git.diff', '__doc__': 'An index for diffs, allowing a list of :class:`Diff`\\s to be queried by the diff\n    properties.\n\n    The class improves the diff handling convenience.\n    ', 'change_type': ('A', 'C', 'D', 'R', 'M', 'T'), 'iter_change_type': <function DiffIndex.iter_change_type>, '__orig_bases__': (typing.List[~T_Diff],), '__dict__': <attribute '__dict__' of 'DiffIndex' objects>, '__weakref__': <attribute '__weakref__' of 'DiffIndex' objects>, '__parameters__': (~T_Diff,), '__annotations__': {}})
__module__ = 'git.diff'
__orig_bases__ = (typing.List[~T_Diff],)
__parameters__ = (~T_Diff,)
__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

change_type = ('A', 'C', 'D', 'R', 'M', 'T')

Change type invariant identifying possible ways a blob can have changed:

  • A = Added

  • D = Deleted

  • R = Renamed

  • M = Modified

  • T = Changed in the type

iter_change_type(change_type: Literal['A', 'D', 'C', 'M', 'R', 'T', 'U']) Iterator[git.diff.T_Diff]
Returns

Iterator yielding Diff instances that match the given change_type

Parameters

change_type

Member of DiffIndex.change_type, namely:

  • ’A’ for added paths

  • ’D’ for deleted paths

  • ’R’ for renamed paths

  • ’M’ for paths with modified data

  • ’T’ for changed in the type paths

class git.diff.Diffable

Common interface for all objects that can be diffed against another object of compatible type.

Note

Subclasses require a repo member, as it is the case for Object instances. For practical reasons we do not derive from Object.

INDEX = 2

Stand-in indicating you want to diff against the index.

See the diff() method, which accepts this as a value of its other parameter.

This is the same as DiffConstants.INDEX, and may also be accessed as git.INDEX and git.diff.INDEX, as well as Diffable.INDEX, which is kept for backward compatibility (it is now defined an alias of this).

Index = 2

Stand-in indicating you want to diff against the index (same as INDEX).

This is an alias of INDEX, for backward compatibility. See INDEX and diff() for details.

Note

Although always meant for use as an opaque constant, this was formerly defined as a class. Its usage is unchanged, but static type annotations that attempt to permit only this object must be changed to avoid new mypy errors. This was previously not possible to do, though Type[Diffable.Index] approximated it. It is now possible to do precisely, using Literal[DiffConstants.INDEX].

NULL_TREE = 1

Stand-in indicating you want to compare against the empty tree in diffs.

See the diff() method, which accepts this as a value of its other parameter.

This is the same as DiffConstants.NULL_TREE, and may also be accessed as git.NULL_TREE and git.diff.NULL_TREE.

__annotations__ = {'repo': 'Repo'}
__module__ = 'git.diff'
__slots__ = ()
diff(other: Optional[Union[git.diff.DiffConstants, Tree, Commit, str]] = DiffConstants.INDEX, paths: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str], List[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], Tuple[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], ...]]] = None, create_patch: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) DiffIndex

Create diffs between two items being trees, trees and index or an index and the working tree. Detects renames automatically.

Parameters
  • other

    This the item to compare us with.

    • If None, we will be compared to the working tree.

    • If a Tree_ish or string, it will be compared against the respective tree.

    • If INDEX, it will be compared against the index.

    • If NULL_TREE, it will compare against the empty tree.

    This parameter defaults to INDEX (rather than None) so that the method will not by default fail on bare repositories.

  • paths – This a list of paths or a single path to limit the diff to. It will only include at least one of the given path or paths.

  • create_patch – If True, the returned Diff contains a detailed patch that if applied makes the self to other. Patches are somewhat costly as blobs have to be read and diffed.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments passed to git-diff(1), such as R=True to swap both sides of the diff.

Returns

A DiffIndex representing the computed diff.

Note

On a bare repository, other needs to be provided as INDEX, or as an instance of Tree or Commit, or a git command error will occur.

repo: Repo

Repository to operate on. Must be provided by subclass or sibling class.

git.diff.INDEX: Literal[<DiffConstants.INDEX: 2>] = DiffConstants.INDEX

Stand-in indicating you want to diff against the index.

See Diffable.diff(), which accepts this as a value of its other parameter.

This is an alias of DiffConstants.INDEX, which may also be accessed as git.INDEX and Diffable.INDEX, as well as Diffable.Index.

git.diff.NULL_TREE: Literal[<DiffConstants.NULL_TREE: 1>] = DiffConstants.NULL_TREE

Stand-in indicating you want to compare against the empty tree in diffs.

See Diffable.diff(), which accepts this as a value of its other parameter.

This is an alias of DiffConstants.NULL_TREE, which may also be accessed as git.NULL_TREE and Diffable.NULL_TREE.

Exceptions

Exceptions thrown throughout the git package.

exception git.exc.AmbiguousObjectName

Thrown if a possibly shortened name does not uniquely represent a single object in the database

__module__ = 'gitdb.exc'
exception git.exc.BadName

A name provided to rev_parse wasn’t understood

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'gitdb.exc'
__str__()

Return str(self).

exception git.exc.BadObject

The object with the given SHA does not exist. Instantiate with the failed sha

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'gitdb.exc'
__str__()

Return str(self).

exception git.exc.BadObjectType

The object had an unsupported type

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'gitdb.exc'
exception git.exc.CacheError

Base for all errors related to the git index, which is called “cache” internally.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.exc'
exception git.exc.CheckoutError(message: str, failed_files: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], valid_files: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], failed_reasons: List[str])

Thrown if a file could not be checked out from the index as it contained changes.

The failed_files attribute contains a list of relative paths that failed to be checked out as they contained changes that did not exist in the index.

The failed_reasons attribute contains a string informing about the actual cause of the issue.

The valid_files attribute contains a list of relative paths to files that were checked out successfully and hence match the version stored in the index.

__annotations__ = {}
__init__(message: str, failed_files: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], valid_files: Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]], failed_reasons: List[str]) None
__module__ = 'git.exc'
__str__() str

Return str(self).

exception git.exc.CommandError(command: Union[List[str], Tuple[str, ...], str], status: Union[str, int, None, Exception] = None, stderr: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None, stdout: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None)

Base class for exceptions thrown at every stage of Popen execution.

Parameters

command – A non-empty list of argv comprising the command-line.

__annotations__ = {}
__init__(command: Union[List[str], Tuple[str, ...], str], status: Union[str, int, None, Exception] = None, stderr: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None, stdout: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None) None
__module__ = 'git.exc'
__str__() str

Return str(self).

exception git.exc.GitCommandError(command: Union[List[str], Tuple[str, ...], str], status: Union[str, int, None, Exception] = None, stderr: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None, stdout: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None)

Thrown if execution of the git command fails with non-zero status code.

__annotations__ = {}
__init__(command: Union[List[str], Tuple[str, ...], str], status: Union[str, int, None, Exception] = None, stderr: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None, stdout: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None) None
__module__ = 'git.exc'
exception git.exc.GitCommandNotFound(command: Union[List[str], Tuple[str], str], cause: Union[str, Exception])

Thrown if we cannot find the git executable in the PATH or at the path given by the GIT_PYTHON_GIT_EXECUTABLE environment variable.

__annotations__ = {}
__init__(command: Union[List[str], Tuple[str], str], cause: Union[str, Exception]) None
__module__ = 'git.exc'
exception git.exc.GitError

Base class for all package exceptions.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.exc'
__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

exception git.exc.HookExecutionError(command: Union[List[str], Tuple[str, ...], str], status: Union[str, int, None, Exception], stderr: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None, stdout: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None)

Thrown if a hook exits with a non-zero exit code.

This provides access to the exit code and the string returned via standard output.

__annotations__ = {}
__init__(command: Union[List[str], Tuple[str, ...], str], status: Union[str, int, None, Exception], stderr: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None, stdout: Optional[Union[bytes, str]] = None) None
__module__ = 'git.exc'
exception git.exc.InvalidDBRoot

Thrown if an object database cannot be initialized at the given path

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'gitdb.exc'
exception git.exc.InvalidGitRepositoryError

Thrown if the given repository appears to have an invalid format.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.exc'
exception git.exc.NoSuchPathError

Thrown if a path could not be access by the system.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.exc'
__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

exception git.exc.ODBError

All errors thrown by the object database

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'gitdb.exc'
__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

exception git.exc.ParseError

Thrown if the parsing of a file failed due to an invalid format

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'gitdb.exc'
exception git.exc.RepositoryDirtyError(repo: Repo, message: str)

Thrown whenever an operation on a repository fails as it has uncommitted changes that would be overwritten.

__annotations__ = {}
__init__(repo: Repo, message: str) None
__module__ = 'git.exc'
__str__() str

Return str(self).

exception git.exc.UnmergedEntriesError

Thrown if an operation cannot proceed as there are still unmerged entries in the cache.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.exc'
exception git.exc.UnsafeOptionError

Thrown if unsafe options are passed without being explicitly allowed.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.exc'
exception git.exc.UnsafeProtocolError

Thrown if unsafe protocols are passed without being explicitly allowed.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.exc'
exception git.exc.UnsupportedOperation

Thrown if the given operation cannot be supported by the object database

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'gitdb.exc'
exception git.exc.WorkTreeRepositoryUnsupported

Thrown to indicate we can’t handle work tree repositories.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.exc'

Refs.symbolic

class git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], check_path: bool = False)

Special case of a reference that is symbolic.

This does not point to a specific commit, but to another Head, which itself specifies a commit.

A typical example for a symbolic reference is HEAD.

__annotations__ = {'reference': typing.Union[ForwardRef('Head'), ForwardRef('TagReference'), ForwardRef('RemoteReference'), ForwardRef('Reference')]}
__eq__(other: object) bool

Return self==value.

__hash__() int

Return hash(self).

__init__(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], check_path: bool = False) None
__module__ = 'git.refs.symbolic'
__ne__(other: object) bool

Return self!=value.

__repr__() str

Return repr(self).

__slots__ = ('repo', 'path')
__str__() str

Return str(self).

property abspath: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]
property commit: git.objects.commit.Commit

Query or set commits directly

classmethod create(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], reference: Union[SymbolicReference, str] = 'HEAD', logmsg: Optional[str] = None, force: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) git.refs.symbolic.T_References

Create a new symbolic reference: a reference pointing to another reference.

Parameters
  • repo – Repository to create the reference in.

  • path – Full path at which the new symbolic reference is supposed to be created at, e.g. NEW_HEAD or symrefs/my_new_symref.

  • reference – The reference which the new symbolic reference should point to. If it is a commit-ish, the symbolic ref will be detached.

  • force – If True, force creation even if a symbolic reference with that name already exists. Raise OSError otherwise.

  • logmsg – If not None, the message to append to the reflog. If None, no reflog entry is written.

Returns

Newly created symbolic reference

Raises

OSError – If a (Symbolic)Reference with the same name but different contents already exists.

Note

This does not alter the current HEAD, index or working tree.

classmethod delete(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]) None

Delete the reference at the given path.

Parameters
  • repo – Repository to delete the reference from.

  • path – Short or full path pointing to the reference, e.g. refs/myreference or just myreference, hence refs/ is implied. Alternatively the symbolic reference to be deleted.

classmethod dereference_recursive(repo: Repo, ref_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]) str
Returns

hexsha stored in the reference at the given ref_path, recursively dereferencing all intermediate references as required

Parameters

repo – The repository containing the reference at ref_path.

classmethod from_path(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]) git.refs.symbolic.T_References

Make a symbolic reference from a path.

Parameters

path – Full .git-directory-relative path name to the Reference to instantiate.

Note

Use to_full_path() if you only have a partial path of a known Reference type.

Returns

Instance of type Reference, Head, or Tag, depending on the given path.

property is_detached: bool
Returns

True if we are a detached reference, hence we point to a specific commit instead to another reference.

is_remote() bool
Returns

True if this symbolic reference points to a remote branch

is_valid() bool
Returns

True if the reference is valid, hence it can be read and points to a valid object or reference.

classmethod iter_items(repo: Repo, common_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) Iterator[git.refs.symbolic.T_References]

Find all refs in the repository.

Parameters
  • repo – The Repo.

  • common_path – Optional keyword argument to the path which is to be shared by all returned Ref objects. Defaults to class specific portion if None, ensuring that only refs suitable for the actual class are returned.

Returns

A list of SymbolicReference, each guaranteed to be a symbolic ref which is not detached and pointing to a valid ref.

The list is lexicographically sorted. The returned objects are instances of concrete subclasses, such as Head or TagReference.

log() git.refs.log.RefLog
Returns

RefLog for this reference. Its last entry reflects the latest change applied to this reference.

Note

As the log is parsed every time, its recommended to cache it for use instead of calling this method repeatedly. It should be considered read-only.

log_append(oldbinsha: bytes, message: Optional[str], newbinsha: Optional[bytes] = None) RefLogEntry

Append a logentry to the logfile of this ref.

Parameters
  • oldbinsha – Binary sha this ref used to point to.

  • message – A message describing the change.

  • newbinsha – The sha the ref points to now. If None, our current commit sha will be used.

Returns

The added RefLogEntry instance.

log_entry(index: int) RefLogEntry
Returns

RefLogEntry at the given index

Parameters

index – Python list compatible positive or negative index.

Note

This method must read part of the reflog during execution, hence it should be used sparingly, or only if you need just one index. In that case, it will be faster than the log() method.

property name: str
Returns

In case of symbolic references, the shortest assumable name is the path itself.

property object: Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob]

Return the object our ref currently refers to

path
property ref: git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference

Returns the Reference we point to

property reference: git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference

Returns the Reference we point to

rename(new_path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], force: bool = False) git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference

Rename self to a new path.

Parameters
  • new_path – Either a simple name or a full path, e.g. new_name or features/new_name. The prefix refs/ is implied for references and will be set as needed. In case this is a symbolic ref, there is no implied prefix.

  • force – If True, the rename will succeed even if a head with the target name already exists. It will be overwritten in that case.

Returns

self

Raises

OSError – If a file at path but with different contents already exists.

repo
set_commit(commit: Union[git.objects.commit.Commit, git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference, str], logmsg: Optional[str] = None) git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference

Like set_object(), but restricts the type of object to be a Commit.

Raises

ValueError – If commit is not a Commit object, nor does it point to a commit.

Returns

self

set_object(object: Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob, SymbolicReference, str], logmsg: Optional[str] = None) SymbolicReference

Set the object we point to, possibly dereference our symbolic reference first. If the reference does not exist, it will be created.

Parameters
  • object

    A refspec, a SymbolicReference or an Object instance.

  • logmsg – If not None, the message will be used in the reflog entry to be written. Otherwise the reflog is not altered.

Note

Plain SymbolicReference instances may not actually point to objects by convention.

Returns

self

set_reference(ref: Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob, SymbolicReference, str], logmsg: Optional[str] = None) SymbolicReference

Set ourselves to the given ref.

It will stay a symbol if the ref is a Reference.

Otherwise a git object, specified as a Object instance or refspec, is assumed. If it is valid, this reference will be set to it, which effectively detaches the reference if it was a purely symbolic one.

Parameters
  • ref – A SymbolicReference instance, an Object instance (specifically an AnyGitObject), or a refspec string. Only if the ref is a SymbolicReference instance, we will point to it. Everything else is dereferenced to obtain the actual object.

  • logmsg

    If set to a string, the message will be used in the reflog. Otherwise, a reflog entry is not written for the changed reference. The previous commit of the entry will be the commit we point to now.

    See also: log_append()

Returns

self

Note

This symbolic reference will not be dereferenced. For that, see set_object().

classmethod to_full_path(path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str], git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference]) Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]
Returns

String with a full repository-relative path which can be used to initialize a Reference instance, for instance by using Reference.from_path.

Refs.reference

class git.refs.reference.Reference(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], check_path: bool = True)

A named reference to any object.

Subclasses may apply restrictions though, e.g., a Head can only point to commits.

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str', 'path': 'str', 'reference': "Union['Head', 'TagReference', 'RemoteReference', 'Reference']"}
__init__(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], check_path: bool = True) None

Initialize this instance.

Parameters
  • repo – Our parent repository.

  • path – Path relative to the .git/ directory pointing to the ref in question, e.g. refs/heads/master.

  • check_path – If False, you can provide any path. Otherwise the path must start with the default path prefix of this type.

__module__ = 'git.refs.reference'
__parameters__ = ()
__slots__ = ()
__str__() str

Return str(self).

classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

classmethod iter_items(repo: Repo, common_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) Iterator[git.refs.symbolic.T_References]

Equivalent to SymbolicReference.iter_items, but will return non-detached references as well.

property name: str
Returns

(shortest) Name of this reference - it may contain path components

property remote_head: git.types._T
property remote_name: git.types._T
set_object(object: Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob, SymbolicReference, str], logmsg: Optional[str] = None) Reference

Special version which checks if the head-log needs an update as well.

Returns

self

Refs.head

Some ref-based objects.

Note the distinction between the HEAD and Head classes.

class git.refs.head.HEAD(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]] = 'HEAD')

Special case of a SymbolicReference representing the repository’s HEAD reference.

__annotations__ = {'commit': 'Commit'}
__init__(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]] = 'HEAD') None
__module__ = 'git.refs.head'
__slots__ = ()
orig_head() git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference
Returns

SymbolicReference pointing at the ORIG_HEAD, which is maintained to contain the previous value of HEAD.

reset(commit: Union[Commit, TagObject, git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference, str] = 'HEAD', index: bool = True, working_tree: bool = False, paths: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str], Sequence[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]]]] = None, **kwargs: Any) HEAD

Reset our HEAD to the given commit optionally synchronizing the index and working tree. The reference we refer to will be set to commit as well.

Parameters
  • commitCommit, Reference, or string identifying a revision we should reset HEAD to.

  • index – If True, the index will be set to match the given commit. Otherwise it will not be touched.

  • working_tree – If True, the working tree will be forcefully adjusted to match the given commit, possibly overwriting uncommitted changes without warning. If working_tree is True, index must be True as well.

  • paths – Single path or list of paths relative to the git root directory that are to be reset. This allows to partially reset individual files.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments passed to git-reset(1).

Returns

self

class git.refs.head.Head(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], check_path: bool = True)

A Head is a named reference to a Commit. Every Head instance contains a name and a Commit object.

Examples:

>>> repo = Repo("/path/to/repo")
>>> head = repo.heads[0]

>>> head.name
'master'

>>> head.commit
<git.Commit "1c09f116cbc2cb4100fb6935bb162daa4723f455">

>>> head.commit.hexsha
'1c09f116cbc2cb4100fb6935bb162daa4723f455'
__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str', 'path': 'str', 'reference': "Union['Head', 'TagReference', 'RemoteReference', 'Reference']"}
__dict__ = mappingproxy({'__module__': 'git.refs.head', '__doc__': 'A Head is a named reference to a :class:`~git.objects.commit.Commit`. Every Head\n    instance contains a name and a :class:`~git.objects.commit.Commit` object.\n\n    Examples::\n\n        >>> repo = Repo("/path/to/repo")\n        >>> head = repo.heads[0]\n\n        >>> head.name\n        \'master\'\n\n        >>> head.commit\n        <git.Commit "1c09f116cbc2cb4100fb6935bb162daa4723f455">\n\n        >>> head.commit.hexsha\n        \'1c09f116cbc2cb4100fb6935bb162daa4723f455\'\n    ', '_common_path_default': 'refs/heads', 'k_config_remote': 'remote', 'k_config_remote_ref': 'merge', 'delete': <classmethod(<function Head.delete>)>, 'set_tracking_branch': <function Head.set_tracking_branch>, 'tracking_branch': <function Head.tracking_branch>, 'rename': <function Head.rename>, 'checkout': <function Head.checkout>, '_config_parser': <function Head._config_parser>, 'config_reader': <function Head.config_reader>, 'config_writer': <function Head.config_writer>, '__dict__': <attribute '__dict__' of 'Head' objects>, '__weakref__': <attribute '__weakref__' of 'Head' objects>, '__parameters__': (), '_is_protocol': False, '__subclasshook__': <classmethod(<function _proto_hook>)>, '__abstractmethods__': frozenset(), '_abc_impl': <_abc._abc_data object>, '__annotations__': {'path': 'str', 'reference': "Union['Head', 'TagReference', 'RemoteReference', 'Reference']", '_id_attribute_': 'str'}})
__module__ = 'git.refs.head'
__parameters__ = ()
classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

checkout(force: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) Union[git.refs.head.HEAD, git.refs.head.Head]

Check out this head by setting the HEAD to this reference, by updating the index to reflect the tree we point to and by updating the working tree to reflect the latest index.

The command will fail if changed working tree files would be overwritten.

Parameters
  • force – If True, changes to the index and the working tree will be discarded. If False, GitCommandError will be raised in that situation.

  • kwargs – Additional keyword arguments to be passed to git checkout, e.g. b="new_branch" to create a new branch at the given spot.

Returns

The active branch after the checkout operation, usually self unless a new branch has been created. If there is no active branch, as the HEAD is now detached, the HEAD reference will be returned instead.

Note

By default it is only allowed to checkout heads - everything else will leave the HEAD detached which is allowed and possible, but remains a special state that some tools might not be able to handle.

config_reader() git.config.SectionConstraint[git.config.GitConfigParser]
Returns

A configuration parser instance constrained to only read this instance’s values.

config_writer() git.config.SectionConstraint[git.config.GitConfigParser]
Returns

A configuration writer instance with read-and write access to options of this head.

classmethod delete(repo: Repo, *heads: Union[Head, str], force: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) None

Delete the given heads.

Parameters

force – If True, the heads will be deleted even if they are not yet merged into the main development stream. Default False.

k_config_remote = 'remote'
k_config_remote_ref = 'merge'
rename(new_path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], force: bool = False) Head

Rename self to a new path.

Parameters
  • new_path – Either a simple name or a path, e.g. new_name or features/new_name. The prefix refs/heads is implied.

  • force – If True, the rename will succeed even if a head with the target name already exists.

Returns

self

Note

Respects the ref log, as git commands are used.

set_tracking_branch(remote_reference: Optional[RemoteReference]) Head

Configure this branch to track the given remote reference. This will alter this branch’s configuration accordingly.

Parameters

remote_reference – The remote reference to track or None to untrack any references.

Returns

self

tracking_branch() Optional[RemoteReference]
Returns

The remote reference we are tracking, or None if we are not a tracking branch.

Refs.tag

Provides a Reference-based type for lightweight tags.

This defines the TagReference class (and its alias Tag), which represents lightweight tags. For annotated tags (which are git objects), see the git.objects.tag module.

git.refs.tag.Tag

alias of git.refs.tag.TagReference

class git.refs.tag.TagReference(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], check_path: bool = True)

A lightweight tag reference which either points to a commit, a tag object or any other object. In the latter case additional information, like the signature or the tag-creator, is available.

This tag object will always point to a commit object, but may carry additional information in a tag object:

tagref = TagReference.list_items(repo)[0]
print(tagref.commit.message)
if tagref.tag is not None:
   print(tagref.tag.message)
__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str', 'path': 'str', 'reference': "Union['Head', 'TagReference', 'RemoteReference', 'Reference']"}
__module__ = 'git.refs.tag'
__parameters__ = ()
__slots__ = ()
classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

property commit: Commit
Returns

Commit object the tag ref points to

Raises

ValueError – If the tag points to a tree or blob.

classmethod create(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], reference: Union[str, SymbolicReference] = 'HEAD', logmsg: Optional[str] = None, force: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) TagReference

Create a new tag reference.

Parameters
  • repo – The Repo to create the tag in.

  • path – The name of the tag, e.g. 1.0 or releases/1.0. The prefix refs/tags is implied.

  • reference – A reference to the Object you want to tag. The referenced object can be a commit, tree, or blob.

  • logmsg

    If not None, the message will be used in your tag object. This will also create an additional tag object that allows to obtain that information, e.g.:

    tagref.tag.message
    

  • message – Synonym for the logmsg parameter. Included for backwards compatibility. logmsg takes precedence if both are passed.

  • force – If True, force creation of a tag even though that tag already exists.

  • kwargs – Additional keyword arguments to be passed to git-tag(1).

Returns

A new TagReference.

classmethod delete(repo: Repo, *tags: TagReference) None

Delete the given existing tag or tags.

property object: Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob]

Return the object our ref currently refers to

property tag: Optional[TagObject]
Returns

Tag object this tag ref points to, or None in case we are a lightweight tag

Refs.remote

Module implementing a remote object allowing easy access to git remotes.

class git.refs.remote.RemoteReference(repo: Repo, path: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], check_path: bool = True)

A reference pointing to a remote head.

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str', 'path': 'str', 'reference': "Union['Head', 'TagReference', 'RemoteReference', 'Reference']"}
__module__ = 'git.refs.remote'
__parameters__ = ()
classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

classmethod create(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any) NoReturn

Raise TypeError. Defined so the create method is disabled.

classmethod delete(repo: Repo, *refs: RemoteReference, **kwargs: Any) None

Delete the given remote references.

Note

kwargs are given for comparability with the base class method as we should not narrow the signature.

classmethod iter_items(repo: Repo, common_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None, remote: Optional[Remote] = None, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) Iterator[RemoteReference]

Iterate remote references, and if given, constrain them to the given remote.

Refs.log

class git.refs.log.RefLog(filepath: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None)

A reflog contains RefLogEntrys, each of which defines a certain state of the head in question. Custom query methods allow to retrieve log entries by date or by other criteria.

Reflog entries are ordered. The first added entry is first in the list. The last entry, i.e. the last change of the head or reference, is last in the list.

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {}
__init__(filepath: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None) None

Initialize this instance with an optional filepath, from which we will initialize our data. The path is also used to write changes back using the write() method.

__module__ = 'git.refs.log'
static __new__(cls, filepath: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None) RefLog
__orig_bases__ = (typing.List[git.refs.log.RefLogEntry], <class 'git.objects.util.Serializable'>)
__parameters__ = ()
__slots__ = ('_path',)
classmethod append_entry(config_reader: Optional[Union[git.util.Actor, GitConfigParser, SectionConstraint]], filepath: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], oldbinsha: bytes, newbinsha: bytes, message: str, write: bool = True) RefLogEntry

Append a new log entry to the revlog at filepath.

Parameters
  • config_reader – Configuration reader of the repository - used to obtain user information. May also be an Actor instance identifying the committer directly or None.

  • filepath – Full path to the log file.

  • oldbinsha – Binary sha of the previous commit.

  • newbinsha – Binary sha of the current commit.

  • message – Message describing the change to the reference.

  • write – If True, the changes will be written right away. Otherwise the change will not be written.

Returns

RefLogEntry objects which was appended to the log.

Note

As we are append-only, concurrent access is not a problem as we do not interfere with readers.

classmethod entry_at(filepath: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]], index: int) RefLogEntry
Returns

RefLogEntry at the given index.

Parameters
  • filepath – Full path to the index file from which to read the entry.

  • index – Python list compatible index, i.e. it may be negative to specify an entry counted from the end of the list.

Raises

IndexError – If the entry didn’t exist.

Note

This method is faster as it only parses the entry at index, skipping all other lines. Nonetheless, the whole file has to be read if the index is negative.

classmethod from_file(filepath: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]) RefLog
Returns

A new RefLog instance containing all entries from the reflog at the given filepath.

Parameters

filepath – Path to reflog.

Raises

ValueError – If the file could not be read or was corrupted in some way.

classmethod iter_entries(stream: Union[str, BytesIO, mmap.mmap]) Iterator[git.refs.log.RefLogEntry]
Returns

Iterator yielding RefLogEntry instances, one for each line read from the given stream.

Parameters

stream – File-like object containing the revlog in its native format or string instance pointing to a file to read.

classmethod path(ref: SymbolicReference) str
Returns

String to absolute path at which the reflog of the given ref instance would be found. The path is not guaranteed to point to a valid file though.

Parameters

refSymbolicReference instance

to_file(filepath: Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]) None

Write the contents of the reflog instance to a file at the given filepath.

Parameters

filepath – Path to file. Parent directories are assumed to exist.

write() git.refs.log.RefLog

Write this instance’s data to the file we are originating from.

Returns

self

class git.refs.log.RefLogEntry(iterable=(), /)

Named tuple allowing easy access to the revlog data fields.

__annotations__ = {}
__module__ = 'git.refs.log'
__orig_bases__ = (typing.Tuple[str, str, git.util.Actor, typing.Tuple[int, int], str],)
__parameters__ = ()
__repr__() str

Representation of ourselves in git reflog format.

__slots__ = ()
property actor: git.util.Actor

Actor instance, providing access.

format() str
Returns

A string suitable to be placed in a reflog file.

classmethod from_line(line: bytes) git.refs.log.RefLogEntry
Returns

New RefLogEntry instance from the given revlog line.

Parameters

line – Line bytes without trailing newline

Raises

ValueError – If line could not be parsed.

property message: str

Message describing the operation that acted on the reference.

classmethod new(oldhexsha: str, newhexsha: str, actor: git.util.Actor, time: int, tz_offset: int, message: str) git.refs.log.RefLogEntry
Returns

New instance of a RefLogEntry

property newhexsha: str

The hexsha to the commit the ref now points to, after the change.

property oldhexsha: str

The hexsha to the commit the ref pointed to before the change.

property time: Tuple[int, int]

Time as tuple:

  • [0] = int(time)

  • [1] = int(timezone_offset) in time.altzone format

Remote

Module implementing a remote object allowing easy access to git remotes.

class git.remote.FetchInfo(ref: git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference, flags: int, note: str = '', old_commit: Optional[Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob]] = None, remote_ref_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None)

Carries information about the results of a fetch operation of a single head:

info = remote.fetch()[0]
info.ref           # Symbolic Reference or RemoteReference to the changed
                   # remote head or FETCH_HEAD
info.flags         # additional flags to be & with enumeration members,
                   # i.e. info.flags & info.REJECTED
                   # is 0 if ref is SymbolicReference
info.note          # additional notes given by git-fetch intended for the user
info.old_commit    # if info.flags & info.FORCED_UPDATE|info.FAST_FORWARD,
                   # field is set to the previous location of ref, otherwise None
info.remote_ref_path # The path from which we fetched on the remote. It's the remote's version of our info.ref
ERROR = 128
FAST_FORWARD = 64
FORCED_UPDATE = 32
HEAD_UPTODATE = 4
NEW_HEAD = 2
NEW_TAG = 1
REJECTED = 16
TAG_UPDATE = 8
__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_flag_map': typing.Dict[typing.Literal[' ', '!', '+', '-', '*', '=', 't', '?'], int], '_id_attribute_': 'str'}
__init__(ref: git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference, flags: int, note: str = '', old_commit: Optional[Union[Commit, Tree, TagObject, Blob]] = None, remote_ref_path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None) None

Initialize a new instance.

__module__ = 'git.remote'
__parameters__ = ()
__slots__ = ('ref', 'old_commit', 'flags', 'note', 'remote_ref_path')
__str__() str

Return str(self).

classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

property commit: Commit
Returns

Commit of our remote ref

flags
classmethod iter_items(repo: Repo, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) NoReturn

Find (all) items of this type.

Subclasses can specify args and kwargs differently, and may use them for filtering. However, when the method is called with no additional positional or keyword arguments, subclasses are obliged to to yield all items.

Returns

Iterator yielding Items

property name: str
Returns

Name of our remote ref

note
old_commit
ref
classmethod refresh() Literal[True]

Update information about which git-fetch(1) flags are supported by the git executable being used.

Called by the git.refresh() function in the top level __init__.

remote_ref_path
class git.remote.PushInfo(flags: int, local_ref: Optional[git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference], remote_ref_string: str, remote: git.remote.Remote, old_commit: Optional[str] = None, summary: str = '')

Carries information about the result of a push operation of a single head:

info = remote.push()[0]
info.flags          # bitflags providing more information about the result
info.local_ref      # Reference pointing to the local reference that was pushed
                    # It is None if the ref was deleted.
info.remote_ref_string # path to the remote reference located on the remote side
info.remote_ref # Remote Reference on the local side corresponding to
                # the remote_ref_string. It can be a TagReference as well.
info.old_commit # commit at which the remote_ref was standing before we pushed
                # it to local_ref.commit. Will be None if an error was indicated
info.summary    # summary line providing human readable english text about the push
DELETED = 64
ERROR = 1024
FAST_FORWARD = 256
FORCED_UPDATE = 128
NEW_HEAD = 2
NEW_TAG = 1
NO_MATCH = 4
REJECTED = 8
REMOTE_FAILURE = 32
REMOTE_REJECTED = 16
UP_TO_DATE = 512
__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str'}
__init__(flags: int, local_ref: Optional[git.refs.symbolic.SymbolicReference], remote_ref_string: str, remote: git.remote.Remote, old_commit: Optional[str] = None, summary: str = '') None

Initialize a new instance.

local_ref: HEAD | Head | RemoteReference | TagReference | Reference | SymbolicReference | None

__module__ = 'git.remote'
__parameters__ = ()
__slots__ = ('local_ref', 'remote_ref_string', 'flags', '_old_commit_sha', '_remote', 'summary')
classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

flags
classmethod iter_items(repo: Repo, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) NoReturn

Find (all) items of this type.

Subclasses can specify args and kwargs differently, and may use them for filtering. However, when the method is called with no additional positional or keyword arguments, subclasses are obliged to to yield all items.

Returns

Iterator yielding Items

local_ref
property old_commit: Optional[Commit]
property remote_ref: Union[git.refs.remote.RemoteReference, git.refs.tag.TagReference]
Returns

Remote Reference or TagReference in the local repository corresponding to the remote_ref_string kept in this instance.

remote_ref_string
summary
class git.remote.Remote(repo: Repo, name: str)

Provides easy read and write access to a git remote.

Everything not part of this interface is considered an option for the current remote, allowing constructs like remote.pushurl to query the pushurl.

Note

When querying configuration, the configuration accessor will be cached to speed up subsequent accesses.

__abstractmethods__ = frozenset({})
__annotations__ = {'_id_attribute_': 'str', 'url': <class 'str'>}
__eq__(other: object) bool

Return self==value.

__getattr__(attr: str) Any

Allows to call this instance like remote.special(*args, **kwargs) to call git remote special self.name.

__hash__() int

Return hash(self).

__init__(repo: Repo, name: str) None

Initialize a remote instance.

Parameters
  • repo – The repository we are a remote of.

  • name – The name of the remote, e.g. origin.

__module__ = 'git.remote'
__ne__(other: object) bool

Return self!=value.

__parameters__ = ()
__repr__() str

Return repr(self).

__slots__ = ('repo', 'name', '_config_reader')
__str__() str

Return str(self).

classmethod __subclasshook__(other)

Abstract classes can override this to customize issubclass().

This is invoked early on by abc.ABCMeta.__subclasscheck__(). It should return True, False or NotImplemented. If it returns NotImplemented, the normal algorithm is used. Otherwise, it overrides the normal algorithm (and the outcome is cached).

classmethod add(repo: Repo, name: str, url: str, **kwargs: Any) Remote
add_url(url: str, allow_unsafe_protocols: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) git.remote.Remote

Adds a new url on current remote (special case of git remote set-url).

This command adds new URLs to a given remote, making it possible to have multiple URLs for a single remote.

Parameters
  • url – String being the URL to add as an extra remote URL.

  • allow_unsafe_protocols – Allow unsafe protocols to be used, like ext.

Returns

self

property config_reader: git.config.SectionConstraint[git.config.GitConfigParser]
Returns

GitConfigParser compatible object able to read options for only our remote. Hence you may simply type config.get("pushurl") to obtain the information.

property config_writer: git.config.SectionConstraint
Returns

GitConfigParser-compatible object able to write options for this remote.

Note

You can only own one writer at a time - delete it to release the configuration file and make it usable by others.

To assure consistent results, you should only query options through the writer. Once you are done writing, you are free to use the config reader once again.

classmethod create(repo: Repo, name: str, url: str, allow_unsafe_protocols: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) Remote

Create a new remote to the given repository.

Parameters
  • repo – Repository instance that is to receive the new remote.

  • name – Desired name of the remote.

  • url – URL which corresponds to the remote’s name.

  • allow_unsafe_protocols – Allow unsafe protocols to be used, like ext.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to be passed to the git remote add command.

Returns

New Remote instance

Raises

git.exc.GitCommandError – In case an origin with that name already exists.

delete_url(url: str, **kwargs: Any) git.remote.Remote

Deletes a new url on current remote (special case of git remote set-url).

This command deletes new URLs to a given remote, making it possible to have multiple URLs for a single remote.

Parameters

url – String being the URL to delete from the remote.

Returns

self

exists() bool
Returns

True if this is a valid, existing remote. Valid remotes have an entry in the repository’s configuration.

fetch(refspec: Optional[Union[str, List[str]]] = None, progress: Union[git.util.RemoteProgress, None, UpdateProgress] = None, verbose: bool = True, kill_after_timeout: Union[None, float] = None, allow_unsafe_protocols: bool = False, allow_unsafe_options: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) git.util.IterableList[git.remote.FetchInfo]

Fetch the latest changes for this remote.

Parameters
  • refspec

    A “refspec” is used by fetch and push to describe the mapping between remote ref and local ref. They are combined with a colon in the format <src>:<dst>, preceded by an optional plus sign, +. For example: git fetch $URL refs/heads/master:refs/heads/origin means “grab the master branch head from the $URL and store it as my origin branch head”. And git push $URL refs/heads/master:refs/heads/to-upstream means “publish my master branch head as to-upstream branch at $URL”. See also git-push(1).

    Taken from the git manual, gitglossary(7).

    Fetch supports multiple refspecs (as the underlying git-fetch(1) does) - supplying a list rather than a string for ‘refspec’ will make use of this facility.

  • progress – See the push() method.

  • verbose – Boolean for verbose output.

  • kill_after_timeout – To specify a timeout in seconds for the git command, after which the process should be killed. It is set to None by default.

  • allow_unsafe_protocols – Allow unsafe protocols to be used, like ext.

  • allow_unsafe_options – Allow unsafe options to be used, like --upload-pack.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to be passed to git-fetch(1).

Returns

IterableList(FetchInfo, …) list of FetchInfo instances providing detailed information about the fetch results

Note

As fetch does not provide progress information to non-ttys, we cannot make it available here unfortunately as in the push() method.

classmethod iter_items(repo: Repo, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) Iterator[Remote]
Returns

Iterator yielding Remote objects of the given repository

name
pull(refspec: Optional[Union[str, List[str]]] = None, progress: Optional[Union[git.util.RemoteProgress, UpdateProgress]] = None, kill_after_timeout: Union[None, float] = None, allow_unsafe_protocols: bool = False, allow_unsafe_options: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) git.util.IterableList[git.remote.FetchInfo]

Pull changes from the given branch, being the same as a fetch followed by a merge of branch with your local branch.

Parameters
  • refspec – See fetch() method.

  • progress – See push() method.

  • kill_after_timeout – See fetch() method.

  • allow_unsafe_protocols – Allow unsafe protocols to be used, like ext.

  • allow_unsafe_options – Allow unsafe options to be used, like --upload-pack.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to be passed to git-pull(1).

Returns

Please see fetch() method.

push(refspec: Optional[Union[str, List[str]]] = None, progress: Optional[Union[git.util.RemoteProgress, UpdateProgress, Callable[[...], git.util.RemoteProgress]]] = None, kill_after_timeout: Union[None, float] = None, allow_unsafe_protocols: bool = False, allow_unsafe_options: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) git.remote.PushInfoList

Push changes from source branch in refspec to target branch in refspec.

Parameters
  • refspec – See fetch() method.

  • progress

    Can take one of many value types:

    • None, to discard progress information.

    • A function (callable) that is called with the progress information. Signature: progress(op_code, cur_count, max_count=None, message=''). See RemoteProgress.update for a description of all arguments given to the function.

    • An instance of a class derived from RemoteProgress that overrides the RemoteProgress.update method.

  • kill_after_timeout – To specify a timeout in seconds for the git command, after which the process should be killed. It is set to None by default.

  • allow_unsafe_protocols – Allow unsafe protocols to be used, like ext.

  • allow_unsafe_options – Allow unsafe options to be used, like --receive-pack.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to be passed to git-push(1).

Note

No further progress information is returned after push returns.

Returns

A PushInfoList object, where each list member represents an individual head which had been updated on the remote side.

If the push contains rejected heads, these will have the PushInfo.ERROR bit set in their flags.

If the operation fails completely, the length of the returned PushInfoList will be 0.

Call raise_if_error() on the returned object to raise on any failure.

property refs: git.util.IterableList[git.refs.remote.RemoteReference]
Returns

IterableList of RemoteReference objects.

It is prefixed, allowing you to omit the remote path portion, e.g.:

remote.refs.master  # yields RemoteReference('/refs/remotes/origin/master')

classmethod remove(repo: Repo, name: str) str

Remove the remote with the given name.

Returns

The passed remote name to remove

rename(new_name: str) git.remote.Remote

Rename self to the given new_name.

Returns

self

repo
classmethod rm(repo: Repo, name: str) str

Remove the remote with the given name.

Returns

The passed remote name to remove

set_url(new_url: str, old_url: Optional[str] = None, allow_unsafe_protocols: bool = False, **kwargs: Any) git.remote.Remote

Configure URLs on current remote (cf. command git remote set-url).

This command manages URLs on the remote.

Parameters
  • new_url – String being the URL to add as an extra remote URL.

  • old_url – When set, replaces this URL with new_url for the remote.

  • allow_unsafe_protocols – Allow unsafe protocols to be used, like ext.

Returns

self

property stale_refs: git.util.IterableList[git.refs.reference.Reference]
Returns

IterableList of RemoteReference objects that do not have a corresponding head in the remote reference anymore as they have been deleted on the remote side, but are still available locally.

The IterableList is prefixed, hence the ‘origin’ must be omitted. See refs property for an example.

To make things more complicated, it can be possible for the list to include other kinds of references, for example, tag references, if these are stale as well. This is a fix for the issue described here: https://github.com/gitpython-developers/GitPython/issues/260

unsafe_git_fetch_options = ['--upload-pack']
unsafe_git_pull_options = ['--upload-pack']
unsafe_git_push_options = ['--receive-pack', '--exec']
update(**kwargs: Any) git.remote.Remote

Fetch all changes for this remote, including new branches which will be forced in (in case your local remote branch is not part the new remote branch’s ancestry anymore).

Parameters

kwargs – Additional arguments passed to git remote update.

Returns

self

url: str

The URL configured for the remote.

property urls: Iterator[str]
Returns

Iterator yielding all configured URL targets on a remote as strings

class git.remote.RemoteProgress

Handler providing an interface to parse progress information emitted by git-push(1) and git-fetch(1) and to dispatch callbacks allowing subclasses to react to the progress.

BEGIN = 1
CHECKING_OUT = 256
COMPRESSING = 8
COUNTING = 4
DONE_TOKEN = 'done.'
END = 2
FINDING_SOURCES = 128
OP_MASK = -4
RECEIVING = 32
RESOLVING = 64
STAGE_MASK = 3
TOKEN_SEPARATOR = ', '
WRITING = 16
__annotations__ = {'_cur_line': 'Optional[str]', '_num_op_codes': <class 'int'>, '_seen_ops': 'List[int]', 'error_lines': 'List[str]', 'other_lines': 'List[str]'}
__init__() None
__module__ = 'git.util'
__slots__ = ('_cur_line', '_seen_ops', 'error_lines', 'other_lines')
error_lines: List[str]
line_dropped(line: str) None

Called whenever a line could not be understood and was therefore dropped.

new_message_handler() Callable[[str], None]
Returns

A progress handler suitable for handle_process_output(), passing lines on to this progress handler in a suitable format.

other_lines: List[str]
re_op_absolute = re.compile('(remote: )?([\\w\\s]+):\\s+()(\\d+)()(.*)')
re_op_relative = re.compile('(remote: )?([\\w\\s]+):\\s+(\\d+)% \\((\\d+)/(\\d+)\\)(.*)')
update(op_code: int, cur_count: Union[str, float], max_count: Optional[Union[str, float]] = None, message: str = '') None

Called whenever the progress changes.

Parameters
  • op_code

    Integer allowing to be compared against Operation IDs and stage IDs.

    Stage IDs are BEGIN and END. BEGIN will only be set once for each Operation ID as well as END. It may be that BEGIN and END are set at once in case only one progress message was emitted due to the speed of the operation. Between BEGIN and END, none of these flags will be set.

    Operation IDs are all held within the OP_MASK. Only one Operation ID will be active per call.

  • cur_count – Current absolute count of items.

  • max_count – The maximum count of items we expect. It may be None in case there is no maximum number of items or if it is (yet) unknown.

  • message – In case of the WRITING operation, it contains the amount of bytes transferred. It may possibly be used for other purposes as well.

Note

You may read the contents of the current line in self._cur_line.

Repo.Base

class git.repo.base.Repo(path: Optional[Union[str, os.PathLike[str]]] = None, odbt: Type[gitdb.db.loose.LooseObjectDB] = <class 'git.db.GitCmdObjectDB'>, search_parent_directories: bool = False, expand_vars: bool = True)

Represents a git repository and allows you to query references, create commit information, generate diffs, create and clone repositories, and query the log.

The following attributes are worth using:

  • working_dir is the working directory of the git command, which is the working tree directory if available or the .git directory in case of bare repositories.

  • working_tree_dir is the working tree directory, but will return None if we are a bare repository.

  • git_dir is the .git repository directory, which is always set.

DAEMON_EXPORT_FILE = 'git-daemon-export-ok'
GitCommandWrapperType

alias of git.cmd.Git

__annotations__ = {'_common_dir': 'PathLike', '_working_tree_dir': 'Optional[PathLike]', 'config_level': 'ConfigLevels_Tup', 'git_dir': 'PathLike', 'working_dir': 'PathLike'}
__del__() None
__dict__ = mappingproxy({'__module__': 'git.repo.base', '__annotations__': {'working_dir': 'PathLike', '_working_tree_dir': 'Optional[PathLike]', 'git_dir': 'PathLike', '_common_dir': 'PathLike', 'config_level': 'ConfigLevels_Tup'}, '__doc__': 'Represents a git repository and allows you to query references, create commit\n    information, generate diffs, create and clone repositories, and query the log.\n\n    The following attributes are worth using:\n\n    * :attr:`working_dir` is the working directory of the git command, which is the\n      working tree directory if available or the ``.git`` directory in case of bare\n      repositories.\n\n    * :attr:`working_tree_dir` is the working tree directory, but will return ``None``\n      if we are a bare repository.\n\n    * :attr:`git_dir` is the ``.git`` repository directory, which is always set.\n    ', 'DAEMON_EXPORT_FILE': 'git-daemon-export-ok', 'git': None, '_working_tree_dir': None, '_common_dir': '', 're_whitespace': re.compile('\\s+'), 're_hexsha_only': re.compile('^[0-9A-Fa-f]{40}$'), 're_hexsha_shortened': re.compile('^[0-9A-Fa-f]{4,40}$'), 're_envvars': re.compile('(\\$(\\{\\s?)?[a-zA-Z_]\\w*(\\}\\s?)?|%\\s?[a-zA-Z_]\\w*\\s?%)'), 're_author_committer_start': re.compile('^(author|committer)'), 're_tab_full_line': re.compile('^\\t(.*)$'), 'unsafe_git_clone_options': ['--upload-pack', '-u', '--config',</